What might the law of causality
help to show about the practice of punishment?
The perception of causality
generally involves two components, one that is stimulus based and one that is inference based.
The main finding are: there is no evidence of Granger Causality
in Mexico, but there is the evidence of bilateral Granger Causality
in US; there is the evidence of bidirectional modified Granger Causality
in both the countries; there is evidence of a cointegrated relationship between consumption and GDP in the US, but it is ambiguous in case of Mexico; last, there is a mixed evidence of Hausman causality
in both the countries.
Breitung and Candelon (2006) simplify the Geweke's null hypothesis so that a usual F-statistics can be used to test causality
in frequency domain.
The most prevalent causality
approach is grounded in Granger's (1969) work, which builds on earlier research by Weiner (1956).
But this study runs causality
tests in an error correction framework on non-cointegrated variables, which is inappropriate and not econometrically sound and correct.
He has authored three books: Heuristics (1984), Probabilistic Reasoning (1988), and Causality
The book provides a fascinating picture of al-Ghazali's growing intellectual maturity, of the relation between his various treatises, and of his attempts to tackle the problem of causality
at different stages of his life.
Sundaram (2009) by analysing monthly data from Jan 1998 to Dec 2008, reports unidirectional causality
running from stock returns to FII flows.
While the possible relationships between salary dispersion and organizational performance asserted by Tournament Theory (Lazear & Rosen, 1981) and the Fair Wage-Effort Hypothesis (Akerlof & Yellen, 1990) have been investigated for decades, almost none of the studies in the literature have focused on the issue of the direction of causality
between salary dispersion and organizational performance.
13) This is the only available time series of gang membership data that is long enough to use for causality
They managed to evacuate the areas and prevent any causality