References in periodicals archive ?
It is sure that people can overthrow it, which shows upward causation. But that presupposes people used to accept it or its influence, which is the function of downward causation.
This is upward causation, causing organizational innovation and evolution or social changes.
Third, the higher level whole has such downward causation to constrain, select, regulate and control the lower level process so that components of a whole subordinate the objectives of the whole.
'Downward causation' in hierarchically organized biological systems.
Downward Causation. Principia Cybernetica Web: DOWNCAUS.html
See Figure 4 as a simple illustration for the evolution of an accident causation network.
In this case, we can analyze key causation factors for accidents by testing each failure node in terms of the occurrence of accidents.
The "7.23" Yongwen railway accident is chosen as a case study here to test the efficiency of our proposed accident causation model-method.
From the analysis for case I, it indicates that F14 is a key causation factor to the accident with respect to a 4 times capacity attack, with the efficiency loss 0.07, while for the same severity of attack on F7, the accident indicator will not get a heavy load larger than its capacity, which means that the accident will not happen.
In this paper, we have introduced an accident causation network model based on the complex network theory.
(i) We propose a new network model for accident causation analysis.