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BIRTH. The act of being wholly brought into the world. The whole body must be detached from that of the mother, in order to make the birth complete. 5 C. & P. 329; S. C. 24 E. C. L. R. 344 6 C. & P. 349; S. C. 25 E. C. L. R. 433.
     2. But if a child be killed with design and maliciously after it has wholly come forth from the body of the mother, although still connected with her by means of the umbilical cord, it seems that such killing will be murder. 9 C. & P. 25 S . C. 38 E. C. L. R. 21; 7 C. & P. 814. Vide articles Breath; Dead Born; Gestation; Life; and 1 Beck' s Med. Jur. 478, et seq.; 1 Chit. Med. Jur. 438; 7 C. & P. 814; 1 Carr. & Marsh. 650; S. C. 41 E. C. L. R. 352; 9 C. & P. 25.
     3. It seems that unless the child be born alive, it is not properly a birth, but a carriage. 1 Chit. Pr. 35, note z. But see Russ. & Ry. C. C. 336.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Before the 1980s, obstetricians performed ERCD for women with a previous cesarean birth routinely because of the risk for uterine rupture among women in labor who had uterine scars, a complication associated with high perinatal and maternal mortality (2,3,5,6).
Some heterogeneity (variance) was noted among the individual trials in the reporting of cesarean birth rates.
Studies suggesting the benefit of cesarean birth in dealing with various pregnancy complications also led to more cesareans.
[11] Guidelines for Vaginal Delivery after a Previous Cesarean Birth. Statement of the Committee on Obstetrics: Maternal and Fetal Medicine.
How a woman will make her decision to have a VBAC, or cesarean birth will include medical risks/benefits/information and her psychological and social factors.
The analysts therefore estimate that cesarean births quadruple a woman's risk of pregnancy-related death (relative risk, 3.9).
Recent trends in cesarean birth and trial of labor rates in the United States.
The odds of perinatal death for this group are more than 11 times those associated with a planned repeat cesarean birth and more than twice those among infants born to other multiparous women who do not plan a cesarean delivery; however, the odds are similar to those among infants of nulliparous women who do not expect to deliver by this method.
The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed systemic review of current literature related to doula support during labor; specifically to determine if having the supportive interventions provided by a doula decreases the use of analgesics during labor and decreases the likelihood of having a cesarean birth. A table of evidence is included which contains the level of each study using SORT.
This does not support the option of elective cesareans and women should be informed of this risk before choosing a cesarean birth.
Additionally, the rate of vaginal birth after a previous Cesarean birth (VBAC) has declined by 23 percent.
The number of cesarean births to women with no previous cesarean birth jumped 7 percent and the rate of vaginal births after previous cesarean delivery dropped 23 percent.