Character

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CHARACTER, evidence. The opinion generally entertained of a person derived from the common re 'port of the people who are acquainted with him. 3 Serg. & R. 336; 3 Mass. 192; 3 Esp. C. 236.
     2. There are three classes of cases on which the moral character and conduct of a person in society may be used in proof before a jury, each resting upon particular and distinct grounds. Such evidence is admissible, 1st. To afford a presumption that a particular party has not been guilty of a criminal act. 2d. To affect the damages in particular cases, where their amount depends on the character and conduct of any individual; and, 3d. To impeach or confirm the veracity of a witness.
     3.-1. Where the guilt of an accused party is doubtful, and the character of the supposed agent is involved in the question, a presumption of innocence arises from his former conduct in society, as evidenced by his general character, since it is not probable that a person of known probity and humanity, would commit a dishonest or outrageous act in the particular instance. Such presumptions, however, are so remote from fact, and it is frequently so difficult to estimate a person's real character, that they are entitled to little weight, except in doubtful cases. Since the law considers a presumption of this nature to be admissible, it is in principle admissible 'Whenever a reasonable presumption arises from it, as to the fact in question; in practice it is admitted whenever the character of the party is involved in the issue. See 2 St. Tr. 1038 1 Coxes Rep. 424; 5 Serg. & R. 352 3 Bibb, R. 195; 2 Bibb, R. 286; 5 Day, R. 260; 5 Esp. C. 13; 3 Camp. C. 519; 1 Camp. C. 460; Str. R. 925. Tha. Cr. Cas. 230; 5 Port. 382.
     4.-2. In some instances evidence in disparagement of character is admissible, not in order to prove or disprove the commission of a particular fact, but with a view to damages. In actions for criminal conversation with the plaintiff's wife, evidence may be given of the wife's general bad character, for want of chastity, and even of particular acts of adultery committed by her, previous to her intercourse with the defendant. B. N. P. 27, 296; 12 Mod. 232; 3 Esp. C. 236. See 5 Munf. 10. In actions for slander and libel, when the defendant has not justified, evidence of the plaintiff's bad character has also been admitted. 3 Camp. C. 251; 1 M. & S. 284; 2 Esp. C. 720; 2 Nott & M'Cord, 511; 1 Nott & M'Cord, 268; and see 11 Johns. R. 38; 1 Root, R. 449; 1 Johns. R. 46; 6 Penna. St. Rep. 170. The ground of admitting such evidence is, that a person of disparaged fame is not entitled to the same measure of damages with one whose character is unblemished. When, however, the defendant justifies the slander, it seems to be doubtful whether the evidence of reports as to the conduct and character of the plaintiff can be received. See 1 M. & S. 286, n (a) 3 Mass. R. 553 1 Pick. R. 19. When evidence is admitted touching the general character of a party, it is manifest that it is to be confined to matters in reference to the nature of the, charge against him. 2 Wend. 352.
     5.-3. The party against whom a witness is called, may disprove the fact& stated by him, or may examine other witnesses as to his general character; but they will not be allowed to speak of particular facts or parts of his conduct. B. N. P. 296. For example, evidence of the general character of a prosecutrix for a rape, may be given, as that she was a street walker; but evidence of specific acts of criminality cannot be admitted. 3 Carr. & P. 589. The regular mode is to inquire whether the witness under examination has the means of knowing the former witness general character, and whether from such knowledge he would believe, him on his oath. 4 St. Tr. 693; 4 Esp. C. 102. In answer to such evidence against character, the other party may cross-examine the witness as to his means of knowledge, and the grounds of his opinion; or he may attack such witness general character, and by fresh evidence support the character of his own. 2 Stark. C. 151; Id. 241; St. Ev. pt. 4, 1753 to 1758; 1 Phil. Ev. 229. A party cannot give evidence to confirm the good character of a witness, unless his general character has been impugned by his antagonist. 9 Watts, R. 124. See, in general, as to character, Phil. Ev. Index, tit. Character; Stark. Ev. pl. 4, 364 Swift's Ev. 140 to 144 5 Ohio R. 227; Greenl. Ev. Sec. 54; 3 Hill, R. 178 Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
When you are interviewing for a job, what top five characteristics do you normally look for besides academic qualifications?
In [8, 9], the relationship between the eigenvalues of eigenmodes and the characteristic values of characteristic modes was established.
After adding characteristic r into (R - {r}), the characteristic discernibility increases from \R- r\ to [absolute value of R], and the number of equivalence classes increases.
Hotelling's model assumes that individuals' utility from consumption is large enough with respect to the characteristic space that any individual is willing to consume a product, no matter its characteristics.
Therefore, 'indirect discrimination' will now be applied across all protected characteristics, defined below: A person "A" discriminates against another "B" if A applies B a provision, criterion or practice which is discriminatory in relation to a relevant protected characteristic of B's.
Now consider the outcome at another extreme, when the subject characteristic has the same effect on the active and comparison treatments (e.g., Figure 2), a possible scenario when two active treatments are compared.
Wear also can be used as an identifying characteristic when the wear observed on the outsole of the shoe becomes so severe that jagged edges or holes develop.
But the proposed boundaries of the characteristic and belonging communities have sparked controversy, with local representatives in some towns and villages saying they are being excluded from their natural communities.
[Q.sub.T](P)--input-output characteristic of the condensing turbine;
We also agree that there are numerous characteristics of ventricular tachycardia easily applied to a resting 12-lead ECG (eg, QRS axis).
To create a context of contemporary change in the classroom, a written assignment was structured to mimic a characteristic of complexity theory.