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the charivari was often a force undermining social authority, resolutely opposed by magistrate and police" (1978: 24-25).
This strategy marked a natural evolution in peasant protest, one enhanced by the bourgeois victors of 1830 themselves legitimizing the rhetoric of the recent peasant protests (as in founding Le Charivari in 1832).
Wegert's account recurs to a certain kind of stereotypical juxtaposition, between the trouble-making of radical intellectuals, irresponsibly inflaming popular discontent, and the practical conservatism of the little people (artisans, small tradesmen, peasant farmers), who mainly wanted to be left alone; but who could be rabble-roused into negative action under circumstances, but always within the given forms of normatively ordered popular culture, whether convivial or violent (carnival, charivari, drunken revelry, and other forms of ritualized communal expression).
As interesting as Waddams' study is, one cannot help regretting that he did not pursue the question of how formal defamation sui ts compared to popular Skimmington Rides and charivari as ways of drawing and policing social boundaries.
53) Rene Hardy, "Le Charivari dans la sociabilite rurale quebecoise au XIXe siecle," in Roger Levasseur, ed.
Thompson, "'Rough music': le charivari anglais," Annales, economies, societes, civilisations 27, no.
His New York tabloid recklessly attacked the moral sins of respectable society (including an early anti-abortion crusade) in what Cockrell interprets as a type of personal charivari.
The War of the Demoiselles, therefore, can be read as a form of charivari, in which peasant men sought possession and control over a feminine forest in the same way as a traditional charivari expressed male control over the women of the peasant community.
Thus it was in Cima that, in the 20th century, women fishmongers still serenaded their companions' wedding nights with a "pandorgada" or charivari, banging pots and pans and singing bawdy songs.
It takes more time to discuss the methodological arguments of other historians than any other chapter, yet still tries to include descriptions of popular piety, perception of time and the rhythm of the seasons, youth and rites of passage, charivari, peasant revolts, carnival and lent, folktales and popular culture, laughter, and ideas of social order.
74) The consistory also waged war on boisterous behavior associated with traditional practices such as carnival and the charivari.
However, with the founding in 1841 of the two satirical illustrated weekly publications, Charivari in Paris, followed by Punch in London, this situation changed, with their influence on popular magazine publishing felt the world over, including Australia, with the founding of Melbourne Punch in 1855 being the first of many having illustrated satirical content.