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Shook attributes the prevalence of chirographic themes in the Exeter Book riddles to his notion that the scribes themselves were the authors of the collection and such riddles provided them with a "scribal diversion" (218).
Viewing the various forms of Middle English titling in the terms and circumstances of their chirographic contexts like this reveals a picture of titling and of medieval textuality more generally that is a product of its time rather than an imposition of modern theories.
Second, he suggests stages of interpretation, aligned with the stages of cultural expression he had identified in earlier works: oral cultures, chirographic cultures, typographic cultures, and electronic cultures.
Was he reproducing himself in a chirographic sense?
But how does the modern and Westernized Yoruba poet function in an equally chirographic or scribal culture?
His main argument is that the oral orientation of Malay communities influenced a substantial part of their chirographic tradition, which was studied by scholars from their 'more sophisticated' print literate viewpoint.
108) Sanskrit tatra, however, needs here to be translated by der, so that de is simply wrong, and is probably owed to the chirographic fact that the final -r of der may easily have been omitted in the course of the manuscript transmission of the text.
McKenzie, "Script-Manuscript-Print" on the seventeenth-century "anxiety" over the move from the comparative flexibility of the oral and chirographic media to the fixity of print; see also John Pitcher, "Editing Daniel," New Ways of Looking at Old Texts, (see n.
But literary works, whether chirographic, typographic, or computerized, are not autonomous semiotic objects.
Ong refers to as an "unconscious chirographic and typographic bias" (1980, p.
For Overbeck 'Malay literature' was to be found exclusively in manuscripts and at the time he made his pessimistic statement, the so-called chirographic tradition was indeed coming to a close in the Malay lands.