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MDR was considered if isolates were resistant to three antimicrobial classes (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and TMP/SMX), while isolates were considered fluoroquinolone resistant if they were resistant to ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin.
Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined using commercial antimicrobial disks (HiMedia, Mumbai): Chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g), nalidixic acid (30 [micro]g), ampicillin (10 [micro]g), azithromycin (15 [micro]g), co-trimoxazole (1.
Although PCR was not carried out in our study, none of the MRSA strains showed resistance to linezolid, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and erythromycin together, suggesting that the gene might not be present in our clinical set up yet.
Maximum isolates of Corynebacterium pyogenes were sensitive to Cephalexin, Cefuroxime, Ceftriaxone and Gentamicin (1 00%) followed by moderate sensitivity to Chloramphenicol (80%), Ciprofloxacin (80%), Tetracycline (80%), Ampicillin (60%) and Penicillin (40%).
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance especially the multidrug resistance to ampicillin chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole has complicated the treatment of enteric fever7.
For instances where chloramphenicol is contraindicated, or for patients with a preference for twice-daily dosage, (34) fusidic acid is a viable alternative with comparable efficacy.
coli isolates showed an increasing resistance trend to 11 antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, sulfonamide, tetracycline, cephalothin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, gentamicin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and kanamycin), and human E.
Staphylococcus aureus was shown to be mostly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, cephalexin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol.
The association of coriander essential oil with chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and tetracycline against Acinetobacter baumannii showed in vitro effectiveness, which is an indicator of a possible synergistic interaction against two reference strains of A.
The most active agents against these organisms were chloramphenicol (100% of isolates susceptible), ertapenem (97.
Merseyside, UK): Ampicillin (10ug), Chloramphenicol (30ug), Cefuroxime (30ug), Ceftriaxone (30ug), Gentamycin (30ug), Cotrimoxazole (25ug), Nalidixic Acid (30ug), Ciprofloxacin (5ug) and Augmentin (30ug).