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BTX-A inhibits the exocytosis of acetylcholine on cholinergic nerve endings of motor nerves and blocks the release of acetylcholine by the neuron.
The regional distribution of VAChT situated at presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals is similar to that of acetylcholine receptors situated at the postsynapses of cholinergic nerve terminals.
Botulinum toxin reaches the cholinergic nerve terminal, exhibiting typical selectivity when injected into a target tissue.
The finding could lead to new treatments for neuromuscular disorders such as myasthenia gravis, which occurs when cholinergic nerve signals fail to reach the muscles, said Randy Blakely, director of the Vanderbilt Center for Molecular Neuroscience.
The disease is defined by the absence of submucosal GCs and the presence of excessive cholinergic nerve fibers in an adequate biopsy specimen.
(13) Persistence of dopamine prevents depression from developing, along with aiding in preservation of cholinergic nerve cell membranes.
The duration of the effect varies with the toxin serotype, the amount of toxin, and the type of cholinergic nerve terminal affected (Montecuuco & Molgo, 2005).
High-affinity Ch uptake is considered the primary mechanism by which cholinergic nerve endings accumulate Ch for ACh synthesis (23, 24).
Botulinum toxin, which causes temporary chemical denervation of the cholinergic nerve fibers, has also been used successfully to manage sialoceles.
Conversely, stimulation of the parasympathetic or cholinergic nerve fibers causes contraction of bronchiole smooth muscle, leading to bronchoconstriction (McPhee, Lingappa, Ganong, & Lange, 2000).