DNA

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Related to chromosomal DNA: Plasmid DNA, single copy DNA

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Some isolates presented plasmids; however, the presence of these plasmids was not associated to the resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals, which indicated that the responsible genes can be present at the chromosomal DNA in the integrons regions.
Kinetics of the persistence of chromosomal DNA from genetically engineered Escherichia coliintroduced into soil.
present in naturally occurring chromosomal DNA. They are even more the
According to the CBMN-cyt assay parameters, patients with multinodular goiter had a higher level of MN frequency (chromosomal DNA damage), apoptotic and necrotic cells (cytotoxicity), and plasma 8-OHdG levels (oxidative DNA damage) than controls (p <0.01, p <0.01, p <0.01, and p < 0.05, resp.) (Table 2).
To construct the physical map of Psm, PFGE analysis of independent digestions with restriction enzymes PacI, PmeI and SwaI of wild type Psm chromosomal DNA were performed.
Macrorestriction analysis of chromosomal DNA was carried out by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
CdtB exhibits DNase I activity, disrupting the phosphodiester bonds in chromosomal DNA. In an attempt to identify the nuclear localization sequence of CdtB of A.
At work are viruses that have evolved intimate associations with parasitoids--symbiotic viruses integrated into the wasp chromosomal DNA (polydnaviruses), and parasitoid venoms, which are of interest to the pharmaceutical and medical communities.
PCR amplification of TEM and SHV was carried out on plasmid DNA and chromosomal DNA of K.
Southern blot analysis was carried out to confirm the hybridization of Brevibacterium cholesterol oxidase type II oligo probe against the digested chromosomal DNA from R.
Expressed sequence tag (EST): A short DNA piece, usually about 200-500 nucleotides, copied from one end of an expressed gene, which is then used as a tag to fish a gene out of a portion of chromosomal DNA by matching the base pair sequence.