Karyotype of the patient showed an extra X chromosome
and an sSMC in all 20 metaphase spreads.
'If we can develop future lab animals with the single-chromosome structure, it will be easier and more efficient to estimate the efficacy of the medicine (on an organism) by observing the changes in both caps of just one chromosome
rather than potentially dozens of caps,' he said.
with the least number of convergent overlapping gene pairs is 21(~1%).
Generally only one form of B chromosome
is found, although variants can come in fairly frequently resulting in metacentric chromosomes
, subtelocentric chromosomes
, and minichromosomes (Jones and Houben, 2003).
Eventually, the collaboration, which includes over 200 researchers, hopes to design, build and integrate into the cells all 16 of yeast's chromosomes
Preparation of HeLa Cells Integrated a Cassette into Chromosome
Because the Y-less males needed help to reproduce, "clearly we need the Y chromosome
for full natural male reproduction," says reproductive biologist Mary Ann Handel of Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine.
Last month, researchers reported shuffling some genes in mice to create Y-less males that could produce normal offspring, leading some commentators to wonder whether the chromosome
When none of the genetic markers used to assign lineages to known Y chromosome
groupings were found, the DNA sample was sent to Family Tree DNA for sequencing.
The new divergent lineage, which was found in an individual who submitted his DNA to Family Tree DNA, a company specializing in DNA analysis to trace family roots, branched from the Y chromosome
tree before the first appearance of anatomically modern humans in the fossil record.
Only 20 cases of ring chromosome
9 have been reported in the literature (2).
KEY WORDS: top shell, chromosome
, karyotype, telomere, Turbo cornutus, Mollusca, invertebrate, fluorescence in situ hybridization