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([micro]g/g) Gallic Acid 250.08 13.43 268.60 Catechin 132.56 25.58 511.61 Coffeic Acid 165.36 6.13 122.50 Syringic Acid 362.51 18.86 377.23 Rutin 474.19 65.43 1308.50 Coumaric Acid 83.54 1.86 37.20 Vanillin 209.57 6.37 127.32 Quercetin 89.57 8.45 168.95 Cinnamic Acid 0.00 0.00 0.00 S.
Cinnamic acid is a natural antimutagenic agent (Mitcher et al., 1992; Liu et al., 1995).
HPLC analysis showed the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids in the organic fractions and the aqueous extract of Origanum majorana such as caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, rutin, vanillic acid, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, catechin, vanillin, trans-chalcone, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, and 3,4-dihydropyran.
Particularly, phenylalanine and tyrosine are important intermediaries in the synthesis of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids, so that the deamination of phenylalanine results in cinnamic acid and consequent conversion to coumaric acid, the latter also derived from tyrosine.
A total of 30 different metabolites were identified with methanol extraction, and these include alkaloids, flavonoids, and cinnamic acid derivatives.
Cinnamomi ramulus, which includes cinnamic acid, has been found to be able to effectively attenuate influenza virus, inflammations, human platelet aggregation, and arachidonic acid metabolism [15] and is known for its antimicrobial activity against [16].
procumbens, into two specific molecules, harpagide and cinnamic acid, allowing the induction of their combined effects.
Heneicosane, nonadecane, pentacosane, cyclohexadecane, tricosene, docosane, eicosane compounds from hydrocarbons; palmitic acid, ethyl oleate, octadecanoic acid, decanedioic acid compounds from aliphatic acids and their esters; cinnamic acid, ferulic acid from cinnamic acids and their esters; pinostrobin chalcone, pinocembrin, chrysin compounds from flavonoids; [beta]-eudesmol, guaiol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, l-limonene, a-muurolene, farnesol, Y-terpinene, [beta]-myrcene, a-pinene compounds from alcohols and terpenes; benzoic acid, propanoic acid, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid compounds from aromatic acids; 2-nonadeca-none, 2-pentadecanone compounds from ketones were determined in the propolis sample by GC-MS.
Monsef-Esfahani et al., (2010) demonstrated that cinnamic acid, quercetine, isorhamnetin-3-Orutinoside, nepitrin, phenyl propanoid glycoside (acteoside 1) are the most abundant compounds isolated from S.
Phenylalanine is catalytically deaminated to cinnamic acid and then cinnamic acid is converted to various polyphenols, which share a definitive structural component: a phenol or an aromatic ring with at least one hydroxyl group.
Kodo millet, in particular, was shown to have high levels of ferulic acid and cinnamic acid, antioxidants with antimicrobial action against harmful bacteria (Food Chemistry, 2017).
Standards of the vanilic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, and vanillin (Sigma-Aldrich, [greater than or equal to] 97%) were prepared in the concentration initial of 1000 [micro]g/mL.