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CIPHER. An arithmetical character, used for numerical notation. Vide Figures, and 13 Vin. Ab. 210; 18 Eng. C. L. R. 95; 1 Ch. Cr. Law, 176.
     2. By cipher is also understood a mode of secret writing. Public ministers and other public agents frequently use ciphers in their correspondence, and it is sometimes very useful so to correspond in times of war. A key is given to each minister before his departure, namely, the cipher for writing ciphers, (chiffre chiffrant,) and the cipher for deciphering (chiffre dechiffrant.) Besides these, it is usual to give him a common cipher, (chiffre banal,) which is known to all the ministers of the same power, who occasionally use it in their correspondence with each other.
     3. When it is suspected that, a cipher becomes known to the cabinet where the minister is residing, recourse is had to a preconcerted sign in order to annul, entirely or in part, what has been written in cipher, or rather to indicate that the contents are to be understood in an inverted or contrary sense. A cipher of reserve is also employed in extraordinary cases.

References in classic literature ?
The cipher message begins with a large 534, does it not?
Yu, "The DBlock family of block ciphers," Science China Information Sciences, vol.
Ciphers like AES, DES [1] could result in high GEs that lead them to infeasible for small scale real time programs.
Security of Block Ciphers: From Algorithm Design to Hardware Implementation
One of the best-known early block ciphers is the Playfair system [1].
A drawback of symmetric ciphers is the key management required to use them securely.
INSPIRED by the true story of the MI6 agent Gareth Williams found dead, padlocked in a sports bag, new spy thriller Ciphers asks how well you can really know someone who lies for a living.
Using ciphers, Caesar changed his messages into something his enemies could not read.
Lewis Carroll loved ciphers. Between 1858 and 1868 he invented four and recorded them in his diary: two matrix ciphers and two polyalphabetic ciphers: the Telegraph Cipher and the Alphabet Cipher.
In recent years, the stream ciphers MULTI-S01(6) and MUGI(7) in 2005, and the public key cipher HIME(R)(8) in 2006, have been adopted as international standards.
The mass use of hand-held devices/PDA has popularized the use of stream ciphers. Stream ciphers are much less power consuming, requires small space for their operations and are faster in operation than other cryptographic algorithms.