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A paper commonly used in various courts—such as a probate, matrimonial, or traffic court—that is served upon an individual to notify him or her that he or she is required to appear at a specific time and place.

Reference to a legal authority—such as a case, constitution, or treatise—where particular information may be found.

Cases are published in a series of books called reporters, which are compilations of judicial decisions made in a certain court, state, or jurisdiction. Reporters are published in consecutively numbered volumes, each of which contains the most recently decided cases. When the volume numbers on a set of reporters get too high, the publisher will begin a new set with a new series of numbers.

To refer to a particular case in a reporter, a designation including the volume number, the name of the reporter, and the page number is given. If, for example, a case decided in the U.S. Supreme Court were cited as 60 S. Ct. 710, the case would be in volume 60 of the Supreme Court Reporter on page 710. To promote uniformity of citations, many lawyers and law students use The Blue Book: A Uniform System of Citation, commonly referred to simply as The Blue Book. This manual is published jointly by law schools at Harvard, Yale, Columbia, and the University of Pennsylvania. Other citation manuals have also been published.When a court issues a citation, it orders a person to appear at a certain time and place. Failure by the person to adhere to the requirements in a citation results in punishment by the court. On appeal, a court may issue a citation of appeal, giving parties notice of the appeal and ordering them to appear in court. Issuance of a citation is required in order to give an appellate court jurisdiction over the appeal. The clerk of a court is generally required to issue a citation.

Police officers also issue citations for minor offenses, especially for traffic violations. The citation that an officer gives to a violator states the charge and requires an appearance before a judge on a specified date, subject to punishment for failure to appear. Citations issued by police officers for minor violations are typically only admissible for a criminal action that is based upon the violation. In most jurisdictions, evidence of an arrest from a citation is not admissible in a civil action based upon the same facts.


Legal Publishing.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


n. 1) a notice to appear in court due to the probable commission of a minor crime such as a traffic violation, failure to keep a dog on a leash, drinking liquor in a park where prohibited, letting a dog loose without a leash, and in some states for possession of a small amount of marijuana. Failure to appear can result in a warrant for the citee's arrest. 2) a notice to appear in court in a civil matter in which the presence of a party appears necessary, usually required by statute, such as a person whose relatives wish to place him/her under a conservatorship (take over and manage his/her affairs). 3) the act of referring to (citing) a statute, precedent-setting case or legal textbook, in a brief (written legal court statement) or argument in court, called "citation of authority." 4) the section of the statute or the name of the case as well as the volume number, the report series and the page number of a case referred to in a brief, points and authorities, or other legal argument. Example: United States v. Wong Kim Ark, (1898) 169 U. S. 649, which is the name of the case, the year when decided, with the decision found at volume 169 of the United States [Supreme Court] Reporter at page 649. A citation also refers to the case itself, as in "counsel's citation of the Wong case is not in point." (See: cite)

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.


1 the procedure of serving notice of court proceedings on a person, instructing them to attend.
2 reference to a precedent or other authority in a court or legal writing. So far as citation in court is concerned, English civil courts have detailed practice rules which restrict indiscriminate use of citations, especially those from lower courts or external jurisdictions. In this respect the Lord Chief Justice in 2001 was following in the steps of the Roman emperor Theodosius II whose Law of Citations of AD 426 laid down rules as to which jurists might be cited and in what rank of importance.
Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006

CITATION, practice. A writ issued out of a court of competent, jurisdiction, commanding a person therein named to appear and do something therein mentioned, or to show cause why he should not, on a day named. Proct. Pr. h.t. In the ecclesiastical law, the citation is the beginning and foundation of the whole cause; it is said to have six requisites, namely.: the insertion of the name of the judge; of the promovert; of the impugnant; of the cause of suit; of the place; and of the time of appearance; to which may be added the affixing the seal of the court, and the name of the register or his deputy. 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 453-4; Ayl. Parer. xliii. 175; Hall's Adm. Pr. 5; Merl. Rep. h.t. By, citation is also understood the act by which a person is summoned, or cited.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
That there is no anchor, finally, to which to link my citational chain of Jesus figures does not distress me.
Moreover, in the published discussion of a paper by Butler not included in the issue, Butler announces a change in her theorizing of performativity which also seems to address as if by anticipation Miss Spentyouth's citational practices in the "Spring Fever of 1993": "It seems important to me to rethink performativity, as Derrida suggests, as citationality, for the invocation of identity is always a reinvocation,...and there is promise in the iterability of the signifier...I do not profess a subject who generates its performances....[W]hat I did suggest was that it is only through the citing of a norm, a citing which instantiates and institutes the norm, that a subject is produced.
These fictitious texts, however, all instances of pastiche of one kind or another, are themselves profoundly allusive and citational. The contemporary love story Possession tells of Roland and Maud is generated by their joint quest for the texts of a love between two Victorian poets.
And while the temporal structure of capitalism is for Benjamin citational, recurrent, and inorganic, the practice of historical citation can nonetheless anticipate and fracture the fatal return of this alienated, dead time, as is suggested by Benjamin's own critical techniques of citation and montage.
I would draw several conclusions from this investigation of citational practice in the Breviari d'amor.
(19.) Realizing the inevitably citational aspect of writing had indeed affected Bishop's sense of how her work should speak to, reflect, and draw on a literary tradition.
This ultimate framing device--manifest in later works such as A Gallery Portrait and Life A User's Manual bur already highly elaborated in Things and A Man Asleep--is represented by what Perec calls "citational literature." In the interview with Benabou and Marcenac he said that "we are moving towards a kind of art that could be called 'citational" and which permits a certain progress, since the point where our predecessors finished up becomes our own point of departure."
If in performances identities may be constructed "iteratively, through complex citational practices" (as Andrew Parker and Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick have argued), it is interesting to see that Nomi constructed a gender-ambiguous nonidentity that was assembled as a patchwork through the citing of a number of disparate styles, cultural traditions, and products (Kabuki, Weimar cabaret, Mickey Mouse, synth-pop in covers and original songs, and baroque and romantic opera).
For my part, I readily acknowledge that Bergman's "citational practice[s]," employed as part of a process of "self-fashioning" (to use Staiger's Foucauldian terminology), have indeed registered within the cultural field to effect significantly Bergman's image-as-author.
This is precisely what Tom Cohen's extensive monograph in two volumes is mostly concerned with: Hitchcock's idiosyncratic universe of "'citational' terms, objects, aural and visual puns, signature effects, and agents" (vol.
Given this, as Judith Butler argues, 'performativity must be understood not as a singular or deliberate "act", but, rather as the reiterative and citational practice by which discourse produces the effects that it names' (1993: 2).
An illustration of how this citational procedure operates within ballet must begin with a brief explanation of the contours of the representational matrix through which gender is grafted onto the bodies of male and female ballet dancers.