Monarchists had suffered by the abolition of the throne in 1871 and the creation of the Third Republic; clericalists
feared a diminution of power at the hands of the republican government; militarists still smarted from the humiliating defeat of the French army at Sedan during the Franco-Prussian War.
These campaigns have in eluded attacks on the religious neutrality of our public schools, threats to freedom of conscience on reproduction, endless attempts to coerce public sup port for sectarian private schools, efforts by authoritarian clericalists
to obtain or retain special recognition by and favors from government, and so forth.
and monarchists were ascendant in the early days of the Third Republic--hence the building of Sacre Coeur--the rival claims of the Bonapartists, Orleanists, and Legitimists ensured that the republic survived.