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Documenting PEDV variation is vital to understanding the natural evolution of the virus and possibly identifying portions of the genome associated with different clinical disease features.
Unlike the tcdB gene, studies demonstrating that detection of tcdA correlates with clinical disease are lacking; and because the gene may also be found alone in non-disease-causing strains,(15) detection of tcdA could potentially lead to misdiagnosis of CDI.
Some of the more promising vaccines being tested have protected 80 to 90 percent of the animals from clinical disease and have prevented infection in up to 40 percent of the animals.
Vaccination has proved to be a very successful way of controlling the disease - both in Continental Europe for eradication schemes and in the UK where the focus is on clinical disease management.
The authors identify multiple points between initial exposure and clinical disease at which toxicant-pathogen interactions can occur.
We've reviewed all the literature that looks at surface antigens and results suggest that response to the two (antigens) were most indicative of protection against clinical disease.
TEFI enhances our monitoring of clinical disease in a rapid and non-invasive fashion," Mr Copland said.
The findings are encouraging, because HPV infection is common in young, sexually active individuals, and although most will clear the infection without developing clinical disease, some people experience a failure of the immune system in controlling the virus, and in these patients, malignancy can develop.
Indeed, the extent and rate of mucosal CD4 depletion during acute SIV infection in mangabeys was strikingly similar to that seen in macaques prone to severe clinical disease.
The criteria for diagnosis include optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, and no evidence of clinical disease outside of the optic nerve and spinal cord.
The change from asymptomatic infection to clinical disease is usually associated with factors such as pregnancy, diabetes, antibiotic use, high oestrogen oral contraceptives and tight synthetic underwear.
Clinical disease occurs at different rates, indicating that optimal therapy can delay or prevent CNS dysfunction (Englund, et al.

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