Process

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Related to clinoid process: cavernous sinus, clivus

Process

A series of actions, motions, or occurrences; a method, mode, or operation, whereby a result or effect is produced; normal or actual course of procedure; regular proceeding, as, the process of vegetation or decomposition; a chemical process; processes of nature.

In patent law, an art or method by which any particular result is produced. A definite combination of new or old elements, ingredients, operations, ways, or means to produce a new, improved, or old result, and any substantial change therein by omission, to the same or better result, or by modification or substitution, with different function, to the same or better result, is a new and patentable process.

In civil and criminal proceedings, any means used by a court to acquire or exercise its jurisdiction over a person or over specific property. A summons or summons and complaint; sometimes, a writ.

Cross-references

Service of Process.

process

n. in law, the legal means by which a person is required to appear in court or a defendant is given notice of a legal action against him/her/it. When a complaint in a lawsuit is filed, it must be served on each defendant together with a summons issued by the clerk of the court, stating the amount of time (say, 30 days) in which the defendant has to file an answer or other legal pleading with the clerk of the court and sent to the plaintiff. A subpena is a similar to a summons but is a notice to a witness to appear at a deposition (testimony taken outside court), or at a trial. A subpena duces tecum is an order to deliver documents or other evidence either into court or to the attorney for a party to a lawsuit or criminal prosecution. An order to show cause is a court order to appear in court and give a reason why the court should not issue an order (such as paying temporary child support). The summons, complaint, subpena, subpena duces tecum and order to show cause must all be "served" on the defendant or person required to appear or produce, and this is called "service of process." Service of process is usually made by an officer of the court such as a deputy sheriff or marshal, or a professional process server, but can be performed by others in most jurisdictions. (See: summons, subpena, order to show cause, process server, service of process)

PROCESS, practice. So denominated because it proceeds or issues forth in order to bring the defendant into court, to answer the charge preferred against him, and signifies the writ or judicial means by which he is brought to answer. 1 Paine, R. 368 Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.
     2. In the English law, process in civil causes is called original process, when it is founded upon the original writ; and also to distinguish it from mesne or intermediate process, which issues pending the suit, upon some collateral interlocutory matter, as, to summon juries, witnesses,, and the like; mesne process is also sometimes put in contradistinction to final process, or process of execution; and then it signifies all process which intervenes between the beginning and end of a suit. 3 Bl. Com. 279.
     3. In criminal cases that proceeding which is called a warrant, before the finding of the bill, is termed process when issued after the indictment has been found by the jury. Vide 4 Bl. Com. 319; Dalt. J. c. 193; Com. Dig. Process, A 1; Burn's Dig. Process; Williams, J, Process; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 338; 17 Vin. Ab. 585.
     4. The word process in the 12th section of the 5th article of the constitution of Pennsylvania, which provides that "the style of all process shall be The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania," was intended to refer to such writs only as should become necessary to be issued in the course of the exercise of that judicial power which is established and provided for in the article of the constitution, and forms exclusively the subject matter of it. 3 Penna. R. 99.

PROCESS, rights. The means or method of accomplishing a thing.
     2. It has been said that the word manufacture, (q.v.) in the patent laws, may, perhaps, extend to a new process, to be carried on by known implements, or elements, acting upon known substances, and ultimately producing some other known substance, but producing it in a cheaper or more expeditious manner, or of a better and more useful kind. 2 B. & Ald. 349. See Perpigna, Manuel des Inventeurs, &c., c. 1; s. 5, Sec. 1, p. 22, 4th ed.; Manufacture; Method.

PROCESS, MESNE, practice. By this term is generally understood any writ issued in the course of a suit between the original process and execution.
     2. By this term is also meant the writ or proceedings in an action to summon or bring the defendant into court, or compel him to appear or put in bail, and then to hear and answer the plaintiffs claim. 3 Chit. Pr. 140.

References in periodicals archive ?
The morphometric knowledge of the anterior clinoid process and optic strut is important for the surgeons operating in the parasellar region.
The posterior clinoid process must be drilling to permit proximal control in basilar artery aneurysm in a low basilar artery bifurcation, that is hidden by the posterior clinoid process (31,32,33,34) or lesions localized anteriorlly to the upper pons or upper prepontine cistern (34).
Surgical anatomy of the anterior clinoid process, J Clin Neurosci.
The occurrence of partially or completely ossified ligamentous connection between the anterior and middle clinoid processes forming the carotico-clinoid foramen was observed and noted.
Qualitative and quantitative radio-anatomical variation of the posterior clinoid process. Skull Base, 21(6):373-8, 2011.
Meningiomas in this region originate from the tuberculum sella, anterior clinoid processes, diaphragma sellae, planum sphenoidale and upper clivus (Figure 9).
The pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus can vary from total non-pneumatization to hyperpneumatization including clinoid processes, sphenoid wings and pterygoid plates.
Well-defined round partially enhancing lesion with peripheral calcification in the left side of sellar and suprasellar region and flattening of the left clinoid processes with thinned out bony wall in the superior aspect of the left sphenoid sinus (Fig.
Sphenoid Sinus Pneumatization: The pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus can vary from total nonpneumatization to hyperpneumatization including clinoid processes, sphenoid wings and pterygoid plates.
It is usually bounded laterally by clinoid processes, internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries with arachnoid of the carotid cisterns, posteriorly by the pituitary stalk, infundibulum and Liliequist membrane and superiorly by the optic chiasm, lamina terminalis and anterior cerebral artery complex.