Does Disciplining Feminism offer us mote than a fairly generalized historical look at the co-optation
of grassroots movements by institutional forces?
Specifically, sanctioned political tactics were represented by the six items: use of expertise," "super-ordinate goals," "image building," "networking," "persuasion," and "coalition building." Non-sanctioned political tactics were represented by the seven items: "intimidation and innuendoes," "using surrogates," "blaming or attacking others," "manipulation," "organizational placement," "co-optation
," and "control of information." We then calculated the reliability estimates as measured by Cronbach's alpha.
After 1949, the government sought to control religious life through co-optation
by the Catholic Patriotic Association and suppression of independent leadership and religious activities.
There is no theoretical discussion of neo-patrimonialism, clientelism, extraversion, reciprocal assimilation and co-optation
of elites, or any of those concepts which shed light on what (with hindsight) we now know was really going on in those years, even if we were not so sure at the time.
Bengal historians treating language cite metalinguistic descriptors such as bhasa yabani misal, dobhasi, and sadhu bhasa in describing competing attempts at sectarian co-optation
of Bengali language and culture, while linguists focusing on twentieth-century Bengali have sometimes described the sociolinguistic situation as "diglossic." Sociolinguistic studies give us no reason to suspect religio-communal identity or matters of ideology per se had any more relevance to Bengali diglossia than they had in those defining situations (Arabic, Swiss German, Greek, Haitian Creole/French) originally described by Ferguson (1959).
* Avoidance of co-optation
. Political maneuvering to sustain power, maintain and enlarge coalitions, and advance one's national interests is a fact of life and is not expected to vanish in the foreseeable future.
The more rigorous historical grounding of Frank's own book on the co-optation
of "hip" by 1960s advertising, The Conquest of Cool (University of Chicago Press, 1997), helps him avoid the Baffler's shrill tendencies, but this collection has something that Frank's academic tome lacks: snarky, rude, and well-targeted analysis of the culture industry, from Details to Wired to the oxymoronic genre of business literature.
Despite the unequal cards dealt, opposing communities challenged the workings of international capital, including the co-optation
of the provincial government and review agencies; they forced public disclosure of bad industry science; and they successfully changed a number of elements in the design and operation of the mill.
He thus resists the desire to see Shelley's 'co-optation
into the ranks of the anointed', even whilst accepting the institutional control of both texts and their interpretation, with the concomitant prospect, as he puts it, that 'Shelley's position in the pedagogical canon may well continue to suffer, to the point that his most important works are now no longer taught in most undergraduate courses'.
Other chapters examine organizations that transferred resources from the state to feminist activities, while struggling against the conformity and co-optation
that may follow from such dependence on government resources.
, exploitation, or commodification in colonial relations.