codes


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Related to codes: Morse code, Codecs, Country codes, Cheat codes
See: legislation

CODES, Les Cing Codes; French law. The five codes.
     2. These codes are, 1st. Code Civil, which is divided into three books; book 1, treats of persons, and of the enjoyment and privation of civil rights; book 2, of property and its different modifications; book 3, of the different ways of acquiring property. One of the most perspicuous and able, commentators on this code is Toullier, frequently cited in this work.
     3.-2d. Code de procedure civille, which is divided into two parts. Part 1, is divided into five books; 1. of justices of the. peace; 2. of inferior tribunals; 3. of royal courts; 4. of extraordinary means of proceeding; 5. of execution and judgment. Part 2, is divided into three books; 1. of tender and consignation; 2. of process in relation to the opening of a succession; 3. of arbitration.
     4.-3d. Code de Commerce, in four books; 1. of commerce in general; 2. of maritime commerce; 3. of failures and bankruptcy; 4. of commercial jurisdiction. Pardessus is one of the ablest commentators on this code.
     5.-4th. Code d'Instructions Criminelle, in two books; 1. of judiciary police, and its officers; 2. of the administration of justice.
     6.-5th. Code Penal, in four books; 1. of punishment in criminal and correctional cases, and their effects; 2. of the persons punishable, excusable or responsible, for their crimes or misdemeanors; 3. of crimes, misdemeanors, (delits,) and their punishment; 4. of contraventions of police, and their punishment. For the history of these codes, vide Merl. Rep. h.t.; Motifs, Rapports, Opinions et Discours sur les Codes; Encyclop. Amer. h.t.
     7. Henrion de Pansey, late a president of the Court of Cassation, remarks in reference to these codes: "In the midst of the innovations of these later times, a system of uniformity has suddenly engrossed all minds, and we have had imposed upon us the same weights, the same measures, the same laws, civil, criminal, rural and commercial. These new codes, like everything which comes from the hand of man, have imperfections and obscurities. The administration of them is committed to nearly thirty sovereign courts and a multitude of petty tribunals, composed of only three judges, and yet are invested with the right of determining in the last resort, under many circumstances. Each tribunal, the natural interpreter of these laws, applies them according to its own view, and the new codes were scarcely in operation before this beautiful system of uniformity became nothing more than a vain theory. Authorite Judiciaire, c. 31, s. 10.

References in classic literature ?
For, according to the order of nature, which is quite superior to our will, it stands thus; there will always be a government of force where men are selfish; and when they are pure enough to abjure the code of force they will be wise enough to see how these public ends of the post-office, of the highway, of commerce and the exchange of property, of museums and libraries, of institutions of art and science can be answered.
Hence the Three Laws, mentioned above, suffice for the better regulated States, and may be accepted as a rough exemplification of our Female Code.
The liberal military code makes provision for hanging many kinds of persons, and gentlemen are not excluded.
While Prince Andrew went to report about the purple-faced general, that gentleman- evidently not sharing Boris' conception of the advantages of the unwritten code of subordination- looked so fixedly at the presumptuous lieutenant who had prevented his finishing what he had to say to the adjutant that Boris felt uncomfortable.
The code he learned was to obey the strong and to oppress the weak.
The moral code of rural Missouri is stern and exacting.
How thin a veneering of "chivalry" covered the essential brutality of the code under which such encounters were possible we shall see.
Then, according to the code of drinking, we had to treat.
Are the sexes really races, each with its own code of morality, and their mutual love a mere device of Nature to keep things going?
You do not know that the message was in code, and in any case it was liable to be picked up by any steamer within the circle.
Vronsky's life was particularly happy in that he had a code of principles, which defined with unfailing certitude what he ought and what he ought not to do.
You are employed by them often, I believe, but you are not on the staff, not since the affair of Nerman and the code book.