codes


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CODES, Les Cing Codes; French law. The five codes.
     2. These codes are, 1st. Code Civil, which is divided into three books; book 1, treats of persons, and of the enjoyment and privation of civil rights; book 2, of property and its different modifications; book 3, of the different ways of acquiring property. One of the most perspicuous and able, commentators on this code is Toullier, frequently cited in this work.
     3.-2d. Code de procedure civille, which is divided into two parts. Part 1, is divided into five books; 1. of justices of the. peace; 2. of inferior tribunals; 3. of royal courts; 4. of extraordinary means of proceeding; 5. of execution and judgment. Part 2, is divided into three books; 1. of tender and consignation; 2. of process in relation to the opening of a succession; 3. of arbitration.
     4.-3d. Code de Commerce, in four books; 1. of commerce in general; 2. of maritime commerce; 3. of failures and bankruptcy; 4. of commercial jurisdiction. Pardessus is one of the ablest commentators on this code.
     5.-4th. Code d'Instructions Criminelle, in two books; 1. of judiciary police, and its officers; 2. of the administration of justice.
     6.-5th. Code Penal, in four books; 1. of punishment in criminal and correctional cases, and their effects; 2. of the persons punishable, excusable or responsible, for their crimes or misdemeanors; 3. of crimes, misdemeanors, (delits,) and their punishment; 4. of contraventions of police, and their punishment. For the history of these codes, vide Merl. Rep. h.t.; Motifs, Rapports, Opinions et Discours sur les Codes; Encyclop. Amer. h.t.
     7. Henrion de Pansey, late a president of the Court of Cassation, remarks in reference to these codes: "In the midst of the innovations of these later times, a system of uniformity has suddenly engrossed all minds, and we have had imposed upon us the same weights, the same measures, the same laws, civil, criminal, rural and commercial. These new codes, like everything which comes from the hand of man, have imperfections and obscurities. The administration of them is committed to nearly thirty sovereign courts and a multitude of petty tribunals, composed of only three judges, and yet are invested with the right of determining in the last resort, under many circumstances. Each tribunal, the natural interpreter of these laws, applies them according to its own view, and the new codes were scarcely in operation before this beautiful system of uniformity became nothing more than a vain theory. Authorite Judiciaire, c. 31, s. 10.

References in periodicals archive ?
It describes the advantages of multiple groups working on code to provide more innovation and faster debugging cycles, discussed primarily in terms of the Linux operating system.
A pair of French engineers--outsiders to the world of coding theory--astonished the insiders with their invention of what they called turbo codes, which come within a hair's breadth of Shannon's limit.
To incorporate direct-part marking into the production line, a metalcasting facility will need the serialized stencils, which can either be purchased or made in-house with a stenciling machine, a hot-melt glue gun (hand-held or robotized), a zebra printer to print the outside paper labels, a network server for data collection, and a scanner or imager to read the data codes.
Anyone with a smart code can immediately pay money online, receive money (including from credit cards or any other means provided by the smart-code server), use the code's control center on the Web to change any' of dozens or hundreds of options, and create any number of new children codes (with those options) to give or sell to others.
Building Commissioner Patricia Lancaster voiced her opinion on both codes.
The 13,000 codes now under ICD-9-CM for diagnosis would grow to 120,000 codes in ICD-10-CM, and the 4,000 codes of ICD-9-CM procedures would increase to 200,000 with ICD-10-PCS.
In addition, lenders need not specify whether an application for a home purchase loan involved a request for preapproval, and should use code 3 (Not Applicable) in the preapproval field on the HMDA/LAR.
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As mentioned previously, it is the procedure, not the method, that is of primary importance in deciding which CPT codes to use.
He noted that "speech codes are totally inconsistent with the sifting and winnowing tradition," adding that "guests on the Jay Lend show probably fear censorship less than UW professors.
Activities relating to biopharmaceutical(31) establishments that are described in SIC Codes 2830 to 2836, inclusive (manufacturing, fabricating, or processing of medicinal chemicals and pharmaceutical products).