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04 Project performance Codifiability of knowledge to Project H3 -0.
In addition, in order for the manufacturers to validate the research results and monitor progress within the R&D process, it is necessary for there to be a high degree of codifiability and teachability if they are to be able to clearly lay hold of the progress and results of the Mainland Chinese research institutions.
The simple informational codifiability continuum model in Figure 1 suggests a new interpretation on the public goods versus private goods distinction.
Szulanski (1996) found that knowledge integration might be impeded by the causal ambiguity or codifiability of the knowledge being integrated, the establishment of quality personal interactions between the source of knowledge and the recipient of knowledge, and a lack of absorptive capacity of the recipient.
In this work the authors operationalize the work of Rogers and Winter by identifying, defining, and measuring five innovation differentiating constructs: codifiability, teachability, complexity, system dependence, and product observability.
Higher levels of knowledge tacitness, in terms of absence of codifiability, teachability, and observability, and in the presence of more complexity and system embeddedness, may exacerbate the challenges of achieving effective ICT knowledge transfer and adoption, thereby amplifying the (expected positive) impact of procedural justice.
Zander and Kogut (1995) have shown that increasing degrees of knowledge codifiability and teachability speed knowledge transfer.
Afuah 2001; Daft and Lewin 1993; Griffith and Harvey 2001; Jacobides 2005; Lewin and Couto 2007; Wolter and Veloso 2008) in our modern era of alliance capitalism (Dunning 1995), alongside improved codifiability of business process tasks and public and private sector investment in advanced factors, our representative firm might elect to relocate some of its business functions to optimal overseas locations.
It further suggests that the codifiability of knowledge, that is, the extent to which knowledge can be structured into a set of identifiable rules and procedures for communication, and its ease or difficulty of transfer, can vary greatly between organizations in different societal settings.
1999), have understood tacitness in terms of the relative articulability of knowledge, while others, like Zander and Kogut (1995), have taken it to denote the relative codifiability of knowledge.
All resource transfers are 'sticky' or inert, where the complexity, codifiability and tacitness of knowledge itself create barriers to knowledge transfer between firms (Kogut/Zander 1992, Szulanski 1996, Foss/Knudsen/Montgomery 1995).
tacitness, complexity, and ambiguity, are operationalised in terms of codifiability and specificity.