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In Criminal Law, an agreement between two or more people to act jointly for an unlawful purpose; a conspiracy. In patent law, the joining together of several separate inventions to produce a new invention.

An illegal combination in restraint of trade, defined under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, is one in which the conspirators agree expressly or impliedly to use devices such as price-fixing agreements to eliminate competition in a certain locality, e.g., when a group of furniture manufacturers refuse to deliver goods to stores that sell their goods for under a certain price.

In patent law a combination is distinguishable from an aggregation in that it is a joint operation of elements that produces a new result as opposed to a mere grouping together of old elements. This is important in determining whether or not something is patentable, since no valid patent can extend to an aggregation.


noun affiliation, aggregate, amalgamation, arrangement, assemblage, bringing tooether, coadjutorship, coalescence, coalition, collection, composition, compound, coniunctio, congregation, conjunction, consolidation, fusion, incorporation, junction, merger, pool, societas, unification, union
Associated concepts: combination in restraint of trade, combination to restrict competition and commerce, combination trademark, combined offense, combined property, illegal combination, patentable combination
See also: accession, affiliation, alliance, assemblage, association, band, cabal, cartel, centralization, coalescence, coalition, collection, compact, company, compilation, composition, concert, confederacy, connection, consolidation, consortium, conspiracy, contact, content, contribution, corporation, enterprise, federation, incorporation, integration, joinder, league, melange, merger, organization, partnership, pool, relationship, selection, sodality, solution, structure, substance, union, unity

COMBINATION. A union of different things. A patent may be taken out for a new combination of existing machinery, or machines. See 2 Mason, 112; and Composition of matter.
     2. By combination is understood, in a bad sense, a union of men for the purpose of violating the law.

References in periodicals archive ?
In this context, two vertex-labeled polytopes are combinatorially equivalent if their face lattices coincide.
A combinatorially Fluster geometry is a smoothly combinatorial manifold [?
The cell is not hard wired, therefore a "wiring diagram" only provides, after much analysis, a combinatorially rich repertoire of circuit modules, particular subsets of which are selected by particular environments.
They must all be standing out and I must be engaged in a combinatorially exploding exercise of sorting the myriads of neutral facts into those that are, and those that are not, relevant for what I am doing.
This verification is a necessary step since feature hypotheses may represent a feature that is combinatorially possible but cannot be realized physically on the original object due to physical and geometric constraints.
These datasets create combinatorially explosive search spaces for model induction and increase the chances that a data mining algorithm will find spurious patterns that are not generally valid.
The effect of this reversal was to thrust me into a situation where what had initially been a relatively "natural" flow of material (where the characteristics of each type had largely been reflected in their temporal extension) became a series of abrupt accommodations and stratagems, attempting to fit types into spaces and combinatorially specified roles which were often completely counterintuitive, having in no way been foreseen at the outset.
GAs are used in software testing to solve maximization and minimization problems that are combinatorially complex and which do not lend themselves to standard algorithmic techniques.
These combinatorially equivalent objects have been the focus of intense research in the recent years.
mutually and combinatorially entailed frames of coordination), they provide a basic demonstration of a verbal behavior repertoire isolated from class acquisition procedures that have previously been relied on to demonstration derived relational responding.
The (k, 1)-hook Schur functions introduced by Berele and Regev [BR87] are defined combinatorially using (k, l)-semistandard hook tableaux.
This, however, is not a very appealing mode of interaction because the space of alternative solutions in such applications can be combinatorially huge, or even infinite.

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