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This paper examines the auxiliary verb constructions V-a/e pelita in Korean and V-te shimau in Japanese as markers of both completive aspect and speaker stance.
The two auxiliary constructions are parallel in the following ways: (1) they derive from lexical sources that project somewhat similar cognitive motivations for their grammaticization into auxiliary constructions with similar functions, (2) they mark temporal aspect (typically inchoative, perfective, or completive), (3) they tend to affect the sense of volition or control expressed by the main verb with which they cooccur, (4) they are grammatically optional, and (5) utterances without the auxiliary tend to be more neutral while utterances in which the auxiliary appears tend to mark some type of emotion or evaluative stance on the part of the speaker.
In order to illustrate the completive function of this auxiliary, Makino and Tsutsui provide this example: (20) koko ni oite oku to Jimu ga tabete here LOC put-TE oku-AUX if Jim SUBJ eat-TE shimau yo.
Thus far, it has been shown from the majority of previous work cited above that when used as auxiliaries both V-te shimau and V-a/e pelita occur with the nonfinite form of a main verb and function primarily as aspectual markers, specifically as markers of completive aspect.
Thus, we have observed that both auxiliaries in Korean and Japanese function in much the same way as Spanish se in terms of their ability to both decrease and increase the degree of transitivity in the main verb, to express completive aspect, and to underscore control or lack of control on the part of the speaker or subject, as well as to express the speaker's emphatic or subjective stance.
In other words, what is being underscored by se, according to these authors, is the relationship between middle marking and completive aspect.
Thus, with the addition of the specific target markers for all three languages, we see that the action of falling asleep in the car is at once punctual and completive. Additionally, the action could easily be construed as being beyond the subject's control, unplanned, unintentional, and so forth.