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The 19th century would see a resurgence in papal diplomacy with the concordat signed between the Pius VII and Napoleon in 1801.
This year marks the 80th anniversary of one of the landmark moments in the recent history of the Catholic Church--the signing on July 20, 1933, of a concordat between the Vatican and Hitler's Nazi regime.
This curial adage--with whom in the past Concordats were criticized as mutual concessions of privileges between Church and State--is still relevant today?
2) By the 18th century, six concordats were signed; another fifteen were concluded in the 18th century and thirty in the 19th century.
4) From the time of Callixtus II (the pope of the Concordat of Worms in 1122) to the present, (5) concordats have been concluded in various forms (the Concordat of Worms, for example, consisted of two separate declarations, one by the pope and one by the emperor), under various names (the term concordat being often reserved for the more solemn and comprehensive agreements, while for the others the terms accord, convention, exchange of notes, protocol, modus vivendi, treaty, and others, are used), and on various matters (traditionally categorized as spiritual, mixed, and temporal).
Godman provides a fascinating view of the drafting of Mit Brennender Sorge ("With Deep Anxiety"), which Pius XI issued in 1937 to condemn Nazi violations of the 1933 concordat.
There is no official state religion; however, the Roman Catholic Church receives some state support and other benefits established in concordats between the Government and the Vatican.
The Catholic Church has concluded nearly two hundred concordats since 1122, when it tried to resolve the Investiture Controversy.
But lessons have been learned, not least from these three controversial Concordats.
Mr Reid, speaking after he and First Minister Donald Dewar unveiled the concordats in Glasgow, said: "They emphasise the need for communication and co- operation.
In short, concordats allowed the church leadership to bypass its ordinary lay members and to deal directly with governments.