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The experts added: "Specifically, we induced abstract thinking (or concrete thinking) by asking participants to focus on the why (or how) aspects of an event.
But in childhood we not only learn the concrete thinking of our ancestors, but also we inadvertently learn many cognitive and semantic inaccuracies, faulty assumptions, and culturally biased misperceptions handed down from generations of uninformed and frequently uneducated elders.
The psalmist does not say, as we might, "Let sin and suffering cease." Rather, he shouts, "Let sinners cease." We tend to be abstract, but this is an example of Hebrew concrete thinking. Evil is not so much a something out there but a specific something that can be identified and named.
"At the beginning, when students were explaining something like chemical reactions, it was difficult to get think past the stage of concrete thinking.
Often, more "flashy" IT media is targeted at younger learners whose metacognitive strengths lie in concrete thinking. The Internet, some conferencing applications, even Email are not for the concrete student.
Ellwood quoted Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes as inspiration: "All values are anticipations of the future."(5) Ellwood also criticizes the importance placed on experience and judgment.(6) Taken with the beauty of absolute numbers, he expressed a belief that still rings true for many: Concrete thinking supersedes abstract reasoning.