However, our claim is that the mental representation underlying these conditionals is different depending on whether the conditional is combined with the indicative or subjunctive mood.
Johnson-Laird & Byrne (2002) formulated a theory of the meaning of conditionals, of how this meaning is modulated by semantics and pragmatics, and of its use in reasoning.
Using the exceptive conditional with two expressions ('B except if A' and 'except if A, B') not only allows to us to check if the exceptive conditional is semantically equivalent to the indicative conditional (such as, 'B if not-A' and 'if not-A then B') but also to check if the exceptive conditionals 'except if A, B' and 'B, except if A' are semantically equal (Declerck & Reed, 2000).
As we predicted, there were no reliable differences between MP and MT inferences and between AC and DA inferences for exceptive conditionals. The absence of differences between MP and MT and between AC and DA inferences on the conditional except if suggests that participants reason with 'B except if A' and 'except if A, B' by initially envisaging two possibilities: 'not-A & B' and 'A & not-B'.
Such reasoning can occur in many forms, one of which is known as conditional
reasoning, that is, reasoning about implications from the word "if." In conditional
reasoning studies, a person may be given a conditional
syllogism beginning with a premise containing the content "If P then Q." The person is also given an additional premise that either affirms or negates P or Q.
Pipe and his father Martin have, between them, been the power behind a trio of champion conditional
jockeys employed at Pond House Stables - Martin Foster, Jonothan Lower and Jamie Moore.
Sirkka Saarinen (1991 : 56-57) claims that some clauses in riddles should be considered as conditionals
because of the genre, and goes on to explain that for a riddle, the style and regulations of the genre operate as context, since riddles themselves are only a couple of sentences long, thus not having much of a context to go by.
whereas the conditionals
if p then q and p if q elicit the following initial representation:
In Chapter 4, BD and ES discuss the use of alternate verb forms instead of the canonical simple present in the protasis and will-future in the apodosis of predictive conditionals
. The overall conclusion is that in if-clauses "the right verb forms must also be present to express a predictive conditional
(Of course, to make sense of this statement, we need an underlying formal model of conditionals
Of course, given Lewis's proof, Adams, Thesis can't easily be true unless conditionals
lack truth-conditions, i.e., do not express propositions (though one can get around this in various arcane ways, e.g., by interpreting conditional
sentences as being strongly context-dependent: see Edgington 1995, pp.
Until now the initial setting of research was a well-known thesis that the conditional
constructions reflect the logical operation of implication quite accurately.