Here, the animal is continuously exposed to the conditioned stimulus
(the compartment which is linked to the drug) without the presence of the unconditioned stimulus (the drug) so that the association between the reinforcing value and environmental cues weakens, and the conditioned preference finally disappears.
Pairing a conditioned stimulus
with an unconditioned stimulus is referred to as first-order respondent conditioning.
In that training session, the conditioned stimulus
was a whistle tone, just as in a standard psychological study on classical conditioning.
Pairing the conditioned stimulus
(bell sound) with the unconditioned stimulus (smell or sight of food) eight or nine times brought about salivation to the sound of the tuning forks.
So while a young female is undergoing sexual imprinting, her father's red beak can become a positive conditioned stimulus
associated with the father's other physical characteristics and his behavior patterns through spatial and temporal proximity, whereas her mother's orange beak color can become a negative conditioned stimulus
explicitly unassociated with the male's features.
In the psychological terminology of classical conditioning, this means that a conditioned stimulus
that has elicited a conditioned response can in turn be used as a second conditioned stimulus
that can elicit the same conditioned response, even though it was never paired with the original unconditioned stimulus.
Notwithstanding, a key controversial issue refers to whether classical human conditioning is a low level process, or otherwise dependent on higher order cognitive processes such as contingency awareness between conditioned stimulus
(CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US).
In the respondent conditioning paradigm, this term refers to the relation between the probability of an unconditioned stimulus (US) appearing in a trial given that a conditioned stimulus
(CS) also occurred, p(US/CS), and the probability of the same US occurring given that the CS did not occur in that trial, p(US/ no CS).
Similarly, in simple classical conditioning situations in which the conditioned stimulus
(CS) is paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) leading to the conditioned response (CR), binary CS-US associations seem to be the most commonly established (e.
In a recent and related experiment, with rats, Petrovich, Ross, Gallagher, and Holland (2007) have reported that a contextual conditioned stimulus
(CS), which was paired with consumption of food pellets, enhanced consumption in animals that were not food-deprived on test.
These neurons responded to both a conditioned stimulus
, in this case a novel saccharine solution, and an unconditioned stimulus, in the form of lithium chloride that made rats sick.
During conditioning, specimens of Hermissenda are presented with a temporal sequence of a light flash as the conditioned stimulus
(CS) and mechanical turbulence as the unconditioned stimulus (US).