experiments in the Western Balkans: Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia.
Turning back to our general theoretical framework based on continuum between narrow and broad understanding of peace, the rather narrow consociational
approach focuses on cooperation between particular Eastern ethno-nationalist ideologies while the broader integrative approach seeks to form nationalism of the Western kind.
Besides the fact that political parties are divided along linguistic lines, there are two other important aspects to Belgium's consociational
model (Deschouwer 2009; Verleden 2009; Vigour 2009).
based on the consociational
model, ranging from a presidency that would
See Jung & Shapiro, supra note 9, at 273 (concluding that consociational
systems work against political competition).
The two major normative models of conflict management are consociational
theory and the centripetal model.
approach has a well-specified menu of institutions, whereas the centripetal approach is at home with a variety of governmental institutions, presidential or parliamentary, provided that appropriate incentives are built in.
It is almost drawing candidates from all social segments as enunciated by Arend Lijipart in his consociational
democracy (Lijipart 1989).
The chapter by Shmuel Sandler and Aaron Kampinsky about Israel's religious parties explains Arend Lijphart's consociational
model and then attempts to cover three religious parties, all in fifteen pages.
Lebanon has come to satisfy the conditions under which most consociational
systems have arisen.
John Wanna, 'Queensland: consociational
factionalism or ignoble cabal', in Warhurst and Parkin, The Machine, p.
In actual operation, the system's consociational
features and the complex fragmentation of authority make coherent policy extremely difficult.