Besides the fact that political parties are divided along linguistic lines, there are two other important aspects to Belgium's consociational
model (Deschouwer 2009; Verleden 2009; Vigour 2009).
When party systems are fragmented or highly polarized, as they tend to be in consociational
democracies, and executives are weak (as in minority coalition parliamentary governments) or isolated (as in lame-duck presidents), governments have a difficult time adopting reforms.
For a glimpse at how consociational
and similar strategies might
97) There has also been some discussion regarding the implications for political competition of consociational
This article will explore the The Ohrid Framework Agreement, from 2001 in light of the academic debate between the so called consociational
and centripetal school of conflict management theory.
STURM, Roland, 'Peace in Northern Ireland--A Consociational
Solution for a Conflict of Cultures?
The Belfast Agreement of 1998: from ethnic democracy to multicultural, consociational
In particular, consociational
democracy does not account for the role of external parties' intervention to tip the domestic balance of power, and this has direct implications on the strategic preferences of domestic elites.
Two main solutions have been devised to elucidate the problem of ethnic representation: the first goes by the name consociational
democracy, and the second is dubbed "the centripetal model" (2).
Another option (the one pursued by Walzer) is to develop a typology of different types of states, and to formulate the norms that each type of state should respect--for example, a traditional nation-state, such as France, can adopt one set of laws or policies toward cultural diversity, which would legitimately differ from those that are appropriate for a post-ethnic multination state, a federation, a consociational
state, or an empire.
John Wanna, 'Queensland: consociational
factionalism or ignoble cabal', in Warhurst and Parkin, The Machine, p.
In a book entitled Political Domination in Africa, Sklar (1986: 25) warned that democratic movements that disregarded consociational
precepts "did so at their own peril.