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Time spent (mean and standard deviation) by female of Conotrachelus psidii to respond to volatiles from guava host plant and conspecific. Olfactory stimulus Response time (sec) Feces of females 68.3 a Feces de males 77.0 ab Feces of males and females 81.0 ab All plant parts 89.7 bc Male 90.0 bc Green fruit 90.5 bc Mature fruit 91.9 bc Females 98.0 bc Flower buds 102.6 bc Males + females 107.7 bc Leaves 113.7 c Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (Tukey test, P < 0.05), N = 50 individuals.
An independent samples t-test compared time spent with the initial training conspecific by the urine odor (M = 90.82, SD = 27.01) and control groups (M = 90.36, SD = 23.55), and showed no significant difference between groups (t(20) = -.042, p = .967).
In the present study conspecific fighting did not yield an aversion to the taste consumed before the fighting, although wheel running successfully caused CTA as in the previous research (see Boakes & Nakajima, 2009, for a review of running-based CTA).
oleifera increase after both bat seed dispersal and terrestrial vertebrate seed dispersal away from the nearest conspecific adult, because there seed predation and arthropod herbivory are lower.
Holding the territory consisted of perching for several minutes, loop flights and occasional flights to encounter male conspecifics. Male-to-male interactions occurred as conspecific males came into close proximity of the territorial site.
Migratory species are likely to be better candidates for conspecific attraction than nonmigratory species.
In contrast, lizards did tongue flick to self pheromone swabs in 57.5% of the tests (1.0 [+ or -] 0.4 tongue flicks per pheromone test) and to conspecific pheromone swabs in 67.5% of the tests (1.8 [+ or -] 1.2 tongue flicks per pheromone test) (Table 1).
socius mate multiple times in nature (Gregory and Howard 1996), thus making it likely that their reproductive tracts will contain conspecific sperm (unless conspecifics are very rare).
The goal of this experiment was to determine if Pholcus manueli and Pholcus phalangioides preyed upon conspecific and heterospecific spiderlings at different rates and how this rate compared to a nonspider prey item.
aligarhensis alone = 11 of 16 replicates [i.e., 11/16]; conspecific pair = 9/16; heterospecific pair = 8/16).
These effector responses were suppressed when anemones were tested in the combined presence of conspecific anemone mucus and conspecific anemone tissue.
Here, we test whether conspecific body extracts as well as authentic unsaturated fatty acids can serve as aversive chemical reinforcements for associative learning in A.

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