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Constructive

That which exists, not in fact, but as a result of the operation of law. That which takes on a character as a consequence of the way it is treated by a rule or policy of law, as opposed to its actual character.

For example, constructive knowledge is notice of a fact that a person is presumed by law to have, regardless of whether he or she actually does, since such knowledge is obtainable by the exercise of reasonable care.

For example, possession of the key to a safe-deposit box is constructive possession of the contents of the box since the key gives its holder power and control over the contents.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

constructive

adj. a legal fiction for treating a situation as if it were actually so. Some examples help to clarify this term: although Jeremiah Gotrocks does not have the jewelry in his possession, he has the key to the safe deposit box and the right to enter so he has "constructive possession"; although there is no written trust document, George Holder has picked up $10,000 in bearer bonds from the post office box of his niece Tess Truehart who gave him her post office box combination while she was traveling in Europe--this makes Holder her "constructive trustee." (See: constructive fraud, constructive eviction, constructive notice, constructive notice, constructive possession, constructive trust)

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.

constructive

deduced by inference or construction; not expressed but inferred, having a deemed legal effect.
Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006

CONSTRUCTIVE. That which is interpreted.
     2. Constructive presence. The commission of crimes, is, when a party is not actually present, an eyewitness to its commission but, acting with others, watching while another commits the crime. 1 Russ. Cr. 22.
     3. Constructive larceny. One where the taking was not apparently felonious, but by construction of the prisoner's acts it is just to presume he intended at the time of taking to appropriate the property feloniously to his own use; 2 East, P. C. 685; 1 Leach, 212; as when he obtained the delivery of the goods animo furandi. 2 N. & M. 90. See 15 S. & R. 93; 4 Mass. 580; I Bay, 242.
     4. Constructive breaking into a house. In order to commit a burglary, there must be a breaking of the house; this may be actual or constructive. A constructive breaking is when the burglar gains an entry into the house by fraud, conspiracy, or threat. See Burglary, A familiar instance of constructive breaking is the case of a burglar who coming to the house under pretence of business, gains admittance, and after being admitted, commits such acts as, if there had been an actual brooking, would have amounted to a burglary Bac. Ab. Burglary, A. See 1 Moody Cr. Cas. 87, 250.
     5. Constructive notice. Such a notice, that although it be not actual, is sufficient in law; an example of this is the recording of a deed, which is notice to all the world, and so is the pendancy of a suit a general notice of an equity. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3874. See Lis pendens.
     6. Constructive annexation. The annexation to the inheritance by the law, of certain things which are not actually attached to it; for example, the keys of a house; and heir looms are constructively annexed. Shep. Touch. 90; Poth. Traits des Choses, Sec. 1.
     7. Constructive fraud. A contract or act, which, not originating in evil design and contrivance to perpetuate a positive fraud or injury upon other persons, yet, by its necessary tendency to deceive or mislead them, or to violate a public or private confidence, or to impair or injure public interest, is deemed equally reprehensible with positive fraud, and therefore is prohibited by law, as within the same reason and mischief as contracts and acts done malo animo. 1 Story, Eq. Sec. 258 to 440.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
An employee who constructively pays the exercise price of an NQSO with Payment Shares that are mature ISO stock, immature ISO stock, NQSO stock or stock that was purchased on the open market will receive the same tax treatment as if he had physically surrendered the shares; specifically:
"It's over three weeks since we asked Russia to engage constructively and answer a number of questions relating to the attempted assassinations of Mr Skripal and his daughter.
Nicky Morgan, who chairs the Treasury Committee, has written to Sir Mark Boleat, chairman of cash machine network Link, to urge all those involved - including Link, banks and ATM deployers - to engage constructively in the process to reach an acceptable agreement, following concerns over how consumers' access to cash could be affected.
I have constructively lobbied for Stirling and we will see a deal signed early in the new year.
Now it is time to move forward in working constructively with Russia!"
* To engage constructively with administration officials, the agencies, and congressional staff from both parties to encourage scientific advancement;
"I told the Italian prime minster that Russia would be working very constructively together with the entire international community proceeding from the interests of the Libyan people.
These kinds of activities can help both American and Pakistani police to engage constructively with young women and men in our communities and help them develop leadership and teamwork skills.
Eide said he felt the will was there but in addition "there must be the right circumstances and if these circumstances occur we must be ready to grasp the opportunity and use it constructively."
Heading Heading "Knowing the people of Scotland as I do, I have no doubt that Scots, like others throughout the United Kingdom, are able to express strongly-held opinions before "Knowing the people of Scotland as I do, I have no doubt that Scots, like others throughout the United Kingdom, are able to express strongly-held opinions before coming together again in a spirit of mutual respect and support, to work constructively for the future of Scotland and indeed all parts of this country."
Government Spokesman Nicos Christodoulides has expressed the hope that Turkey will, at long last, contribute constructively to a peaceful solution to the Cyprus problem,
Abbott said he intends to "work constructively" with the new Senate in July as major parts of his budget may be blocked by the opposition.

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