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Taking into account the arguments in the introduction and the criteria used to discriminate courtship behavior (Materials and Methods), the most likely general function of copulatory courtship is thus to elicit female responses during or following copulation that increase the male's chances of fathering her offspring.
With the common dolphin, copulation tended to be what it seemed - a straightforward means of mating," the report said.
Empirical work has found that, in odonates, copulating pairs are more vulnerable to predation than are single males (Fincke, 1982), and in a semiaquatic bug, Microvelia austrina, the proportion found in copulation is lower when there is a predator present (Sih, 1988).
In Tables 1 through 3 we give a summary of the known behaviors for different species of Scarabaeus and Kheper during the periods of feeding-gonad maturation, nesting and copulation.
Females of Cnephasia jactatana Walker, 1863 (Tortricidae), which copulated with nonvirgin males, received spermatophores that were 45% smaller than the ones transferred in the first copulation.
These include: (1) absence of courtship, (2) initiation of copulation by males, (3) short duration of copulation (often less than 10 min), (4) postcopulatory guarding by males, and (5) polygamous copulation by females on short timescales.
In the sixteenth century, however, copulation was still robust, the word used not only for sex and grammar, but also for theology.
5 by 4 cm, permitting copulation by wild males through the cage) and video recorded their mating behavior from ca.
Males may also compete for fertilizations after copulation through such avenues as mate guarding or copulatory plugs, the necessity or efficacy of which is affected by sperm precedence (Parker 1984).
To our knowledge, however, there has been no work to date showing that smaller male insects may have greater mating success than larger males, based solely on the physical aspects of actual copulation.