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users can costlessly determine who owns the property rights they want.
In the event of false negatives, the seller can costlessly enforce the
Economists should not assume that the necessary institutions exist and operate flawlessly and costlessly.
It is hard to imagine a contract that could costlessly eliminate this problem.
No technology can ensure that consumers could be immediately and costlessly informed of the treatment of animals in relevant foods.
(306.) Of course, if C could costlessly obtain the information, and O did not spend any money on protection, then O might not have the incentive to produce the information in the first place.
The second is "Share Nicely." Just as we can now make valuable--or at least entertaining--stuffin our spare time, we can share it almost costlessly with whomever might be interested or link it up with someone else's similarly quirky project.
Note that if the SDF prices a set of "primitive" assets, [R.sub.t+1], then according to Equation (9.1) [[alpha].sub.pt] will be zero when a fund (costlessly) forms a portfolio of the primitive assets, if the portfolio strategy uses only information contained in [OMEGA] at time t.
Reconciling these two presumptions is a central challenge, but do not think that the benefits of competition can generally be proven and that we can therefore costlessly redefine away the presumption that competition is good for efficiency and for consumers.
Suppose, then, that agents' identities can be costlessly verified, and that it is also costless to keep records of which transactions agents have entered into.
The error-learning that the rational-expectations hypothesis entails should be rapid if: (a) the stochastic part of the process being forecast is stationary and asymptotically mean-convergent and (b) data on reported outcomes can be verified costlessly. Let us suppose that data on the current value of the determinants [X.sub.t] of the future values of any variable [Y.sub.t+k] (k = 1, 2, ...) contain both relevant information ([I.sub.t]) and disinformation ([D.sub.t]).
If one had been able to costlessly short Palm and buy 3Com, one could have made very substantial returns.