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One bifolium bears a watermark and countermark (fig.
153 and 445): The provenance of this countermark is not unknown: according to Cerny, Mss 17.
The watermark depicts an eight-ray star and the countermark of a doubled-lined W.
Its consistent watermarks (the Angoumois fleur-de-lis with the Jesuit countermark "IHS" above the maker's initials "RC") [31] and rastral measurements indicate that it began life as a bound, uncopied volume, a point further underscored by its regular four-folio quiring (determinable both by matching watermark halves and some visible stitching).
The competing countermarks hypothesis: Reliable assessment of competitive ability by potential mates.
Monetary graffiti and countermarks cannot be neglected (J.
Watermarks and countermarks are partly visible in the gutters of the margins, and appear respectively as a fleur-de-lis with an ornate base similar to Heawood 1533, and the roman numeral VI.