counterproposition

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"Think of the Abraham-to-Seinfeld, or the Sarah-to-Hannah Arendt, proneness to argument Jewish literature, from scripture to stand-up, displays a recurring love of the counterproposition, the answerback, the chutzpah.
to do so is not merely to release the individual from misguided guilt, but to win agreement to a counterproposition: that, because society is interdependent, what the individual does is neither entirely his fault nor--as the doctrine of self-reliance had insisted--his achievement.
Robbins argues that literary figurations of the social safety net often emerge from what we might consider an unlikely place: the upward mobility narrative, which structurally endorses the notion that the upwardly mobile protagonist should be given assistance along the way by characters who allow him to treat the past as past, and not his fault: "[t]o do so is not merely to release the individual from misguided guilt, but to win agreement to a counterproposition: that, because society is interdependent, what the individual does is neither entirely his fault nor--as the doctrine of self-reliance had insisted--his achievement" (Robbins 89).
In Travel and Translation, a book written "at the end of what will surely be the last 'Western' millennium," James Clifford worries about the ways of "navigat[ing] the repressive alternatives of universalism and separatism." (7) Clifford argues that recovering the history of "traveling East." as a counterproposition to the broadly construed cultural experience of "traveling West," might prove of crucial importance.
"In his prose Swinburne evokes the sinuous rhythm of a serpent's movements, carefully balanced on an 's'-shape: proposition + conjunction + counterproposition" (p.
To show that regulatory labour law had a negative impact on Blacks, and even had racist underpinnings, hardly validates the counterproposition that Black workers would have benefited from a laissez-faire regime.
Instead of defining itself as a counterproposition to established authority, as it did in Europe, the movement reshaped itself in the image of the in-stablishment.
As a counterproposition, and in a typical Fourierist fashion, Tacussel searches for a representational homology between the inner structure of a work or a theory--its epistemology, its rhetoric, etc.--and the way it is received and mentally appropriated by a given community (151).
King, (7) in which they argued for abandoning the idea of Gnosticism due to its inadequacy in the light of the discovered materials, several counterpropositions have been suggested.
The counterpropositions were that: 1) only activities strictly related to the formal curriculum are undertaken with focus on content without stimulating critical thinking and 2) only teachers carry out these activities.
Mandel also provides a set of counterpropositions. For example, areas exist where it makes little sense to rely on central state governments for stability; attempts to bolster such governments to promote stability often prove futile; armed nonstate groups can sometimes provide local stability better than states; power-sharing arrangements between states and armed nonstate groups may sometimes be viable; and these changes in the international setting call for major analytical shifts and significant deviations from standard responses.
Graff also says that the author's "critique and counterpropositions would gain from a clearer examination of the nature and processes of historical change".