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During cooling of the furnace, the refractory can adhere to the spout and cause horizontal cracking. This failure mode is structurally related to the support refractory system and is corrected by pre-installing the spout.
Environmental ozone has already been shown to accelerate the deterioration of tires made from NRL with an average cracking rate of about 0.06 mm/hr when the ozone level was 0.25 ppm (ref.
Finally, different cracking behavior of the specimen with a single surface preexisting flaw under dynamic and static loading is discussed.
This summary report discusses an investigation of the trends of longitudinal and transverse cracking in jointed concrete pavements based on data from the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program's Strategic Study of Structural Factors for Rigid Pavements (SPS-2).
However, studies on thermal cracking of massive oil shale under high temperature are very few.
Figure 1 (a and b) elaborate the FE-SEM images, cracking effect occur at sharp edges and dull edges of the rectangular solid piece of samples remained safe.
Since concrete is weak in tension, the cracking of concrete as well as the interaction between the reinforcing steel and the cracked concrete causes highly nonlinear behavior in reinforced concrete structures [1].
Cracking is a major issue for the concrete industry, as it detracts from the aesthetics of concrete, can be a safety hazard, and may compromise durability or structural integrity.
The swelling of expansive soil leads to the crack production and development; releasing the strength of expansive soil overconsolidation during excavation will cause crack development; changing of water content gives rise to expansive soil deformation and cracking. All of these can explain that the crack characteristic is reflect on swelling and over-consolidation, the crack is the key factor of the expansive soil slope stability and controls the strength of expansive soil.
Clarke, "Tensile cracking during thermal cycling of alumina films formed by high-temperature oxidation," Acta Materialia, vol.
Cracking or decohesion of second phase particles can happen in the first few cycles, particularly when the second phase particle is segregated and located in the high stress areas.