In Experiment 1, a standard exogenous cuing procedure was used in order to investigate the role of a central fixation cue on IOR.
Cuing and Block of trials were manipulated within participants, while Fixation Cue was manipulated between participants.
The resulting time course of cuing effects was very similar to the one usually observed in detection tasks.
More importantly, if the reduction of Spatial Stroop by peripheral cues systematically found in our previous experiments is really due to a process of cue-target event integration, then the presence of distractors should eliminate the reduction of Spatial Stroop on cued trials, and a null modulation of Cuing on Spatial Stroop should be found.
Head-up display benefits were particularly amplified with conformal imagery, such as the target cuing task employed here.
Automated Attention Guidance: Costs and Benefit of Cuing
Nicoll (1992) found that cuing provided advantages in the first 30 s of the visual search process.
Previous studies have examined the effects of imperfect cuing systems, including missed targets and/or cued nontargets (e.
Such attentional effects have been observed in cuing devices involving aircraft maintenance fault inspection (Ockerman & Pritchett, 1998) and military targets (Merlo, Wickens, & Yeh, 1999; Yeh et al.
1997; Sorkin, Kantowitz, & Kantowitz, 1988; Swets, 1998) and in intelligent diagnosis (Mosier, Skitka, Heers, & Burdick, 1998), but it has received less examination in the context of target cuing (Entin, 1998; Merlo et al.
Thus both real and simulated auditory spatial cuing can potentially produce dramatic improvements in visual search performance for both real and virtual environments.
For example, auditory cuing in an environment that provides a high amount of visual information to a target's location may not need to be as precise as when little or no visual target information is present.