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As the examples show, Layer II markers are completely substituted by Layer III prepositions, and only nominative Early Romani Layer I morphemes are retained, assigning the noun to a declensional class and marking gender and number.
Inflectional endings for declensional classes (after Hogg & Fulk 2011).
14) The declensional model of Anglican historiography is best expressed in William K.
The repetition of ich bin so dumm, du bist so dumm (line 3) is one such instance, and it echoes the famous poem "Der Werwolf" (Arndt 136), which plays on a reinterpretation of wer (Old English "man") as the German relative and interrogative pronoun wer ("who") and declines it with its different forms (wes, wem, wen), thus incidentally creating a potential nightmare for the translator into English, which has neither the homonymy of wer nor the various declensional endings.
Under this heading, and on the same page, Grimm briefly sketches the reduction of declensional inflexions and the loss of grammatical gender in English, where he uses Neu-Englisch to mean 'Modern English', and where, in accordance with his normal terminology, he uses Alt-Englisch to mean 'early Middle English', with initial capitals both for the use of the former term as a noun (as is still done in current German for initial <N>, but the word is not now hyphenated) and for the latter term as an adjective (in current German written unhyphenated with small initial <a> and change of meaning, now 'Old English' = angelsachsisch 'Anglo-Saxon'):
In formulating the very pleasing chiasmic structure analysis, Jakobson implicitly makes certain presuppositions, which, when made explicit and critically examined, reveal that the gender features of the declensional system do not have the mirror image properties regarding absence and presence of "something" which form the basis of Jakobson's chiasmus.
As she concludes, we have a conversion, involving a word-class change that includes acquisition of the notional property of "identification" and that is signalled by choice of declensional class.
bar]yasa)-- in repeatedly employing some declensional form of the Sanskrit word for 'what' (kimsabdar[u.
The Estonian declensional system is renowned for the number of case forms and inflectional patterns that it contains.
In my view, the most important conclusion that follows from the (incorrect) use of the nominative ending is that this scribe attempted to adhere to a standard in which declensional endings were obligatory.
It is believed that through various phonological processes actively operating within the paradigm and leading to a generalisation of a single ending (-e), this declensional type very early lost its communicative function and was ready to appropriate endings from the stronger, more influential paradigms, i.
1) A companion paper, to appear in a subsequent issue of LU, applies a similar approach to the declensional system, extending the analysis in Blevins 2005; 2006 and addressing issues that arise on this account.