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4%), decreased cardiac output and decreased cardiac index in 18 patients (25.
The body's compensatory mechanism and response to decreased cardiac output is to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system.
In the vertical position, multiple factors may lead to decreased arterial or venous circulation, such as decreased cardiac output or loss of autoregulation.
This decline is caused primarily by a reduction in maximum heart rate and stroke volume and, in turn, decreased cardiac output.
Hypovolemia, such as during hemorrhage or fluid volume loss during dialysis, is the most common reason for decreased cardiac output.
Clinical responses to beta blockade include slowed sinus heart rate, depressed A-V conduction, decreased cardiac output at rest and with exercise, and reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest and with exercise.