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See: a priori
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Even if they are independent of the concrete world, the argument is deductively valid.
Let us tweak the lottery example to illustrate just how absurd conclusions can be when one assumes that beliefs are deductively closed (an assumption that the special-verdict form makes).
3; 1974, [section]ii) have rightly been unable to understand how the critical appraisal of the past performance of rival hypotheses can bear deductively on their comparative usefulness and applicability in the future, and have drifted back into a deadening and futile inductivism.
Argumentation that persuades and achieves these other goals is perhaps better in some ways than one that does not, even if, perhaps, both are deductively valid.
Using the same categories, I deductively analyzed comments submitted by EA1 students (244 passages from 104 students, or 31.
to think inductively as well as deductively in the domain of language.
Therefore, we must admit that the inherent risk probabilities entailed with similarly dated practices may likely, and deductively, have changed as well.
McPherran's account combines the two, arguing that Socrates was able to test the reliability of the sign both inductively and deductively (1996, 188-9).
Then using some strategy the solver selects some facts and puts them in an order so that each steps follows deductively from previously established facts (Figure 1).
The social order that I described is deductively derived through a consistent application of this methodology along with a basic understanding of human nature, from which justice with respect to that nature is derived.
At this time--although I'm not aware of any statistical analysis--I would deductively conclude that this lack of continuity in delivering instructions has resulted in a much lower reliability than originally yielded.
Next, he describes how most economists just get this story wrong, either because they can't bring themselves to study the messy details of polities and history or because they cling deductively to assumptions rather than addressing evidence.