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Related to deflations: Deflationary spiral, Negative Inflation
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Unfortunately, that has led to a relative neglect of deflation in the Austrian literature.
The problematic version of deflation is the monetary deflation caused by an insufficient supply of money.
The result of the monetary deflation will be slack sales, unemployment, and bankruptcies.
Inflation and deflation of debts produce very different outcomes.
Deflation, on the other hand, increases debt, and feels like being smothered by a lead blanket.
This article reviews the conventional view of deflation, which assumes that deflation is always harmful, and contrasts it with a more nuanced view of deflation, which makes a distinction between deflationary pressures originating from the aggregate demand and the aggregate supply sides of the economy.
Deflation returned as a pressing issue as Japan struggled with its weak economy and falling price level and inflation in many of world's advanced economies declined significantly Between 1995 and 2004, Japan's economy grew an anemic 1.
Why act now instead of lowering the funds rate if and when deflation appears?
Would periodic deflations that may be experienced by a central bank pursuing a zero inflation target likely wreak such economic havoc?
The first of the three principal dangers posed by price deflations is that they can increase the cost of capital, thereby discouraging investment and causing output to fall.
Since the 1990s, the Japanese economy has languished in a feeble state of weak growth and deflation that persisted into the 21st Century.
According to economic theory, deflation fuels expectations that prices will continue to fall, encouraging consumers, businesses and government to put off purchases, thus holding back growth.