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Calculation of deformations of perforated beams deflections with the theory of composed bars was modified by author with integration of differential equation in Fourier series [6].
The final inspection conducted by TDOT and Timewell engineers followed TDOT and AASHTO criteria, noting that deflection testing was to occur no sooner than 30 days after installation.
Because the outer wall has been constructed, the design of the inner structure has a significant influence on the deflection and stability of the support structure.
This approach utilizes the deflection of the pipe, calculated using a version of the classic Iowa Formula, in estimating the wall-bending stresses in the pipe.
The deflections and maximum tensile stresses of the shell with an optimized thickness distribution (design 2) are compared to the same shell with edge beam of uniformly varying cross section (design 3) and another shell with a uniform thickness of 8,9 cm (design 1).
In this process, more commonly referred to as backcalculation, a numerical optimization method is employed so that the measured deflection basin agrees with the deflections given by a numerical model.
To solve this problem, FHWA researchers developed the rolling wheel deflectometer (RWD), which can perform structural evaluations by collecting continuous profiles of pavement deflection while traveling at normal highway speeds.
It is concluded that air-to-air exchangers should be designed and manufactured with pre-stressed membranes and a good support scheme should be chosen to reduce the mass flow rate variation caused by membrane deflections.
For a 4-inch diameter orifice meter, Burgin (1971) reported that plate deflections of 1/8 inch gave an under-measurement error between 2.