Excursus on German and Dutch demonstrative pronoun
In Nicias's speech, forms of the demonstrative pronoun
houtos occur fourteen times, while forms of hode and ekeinos occur not at all.
The careful writer often turns to four words to help bring the reader's attention back to the idea on the table: "this," "that," "these," "those." Called "demonstrative pronouns
," these words typically should precede some other noun, for as a rule they should not serve as true pronouns--those taking the place of a noun.
Suppose that our lexicon did contain a separate entry for "that" as complementizer - "[tha]comp" as it might be - entry which had a grammatical distribution very different from the distribution of a demonstrative pronoun
. Then at the levels of structural description relevant to well-formedness (i.e.
[phrase omitted] A quittance for Jamila, the freedwoman of Umm Hunayda The demonstrative pronoun
, which in many cases opens the initial identificatory component, is found already in the bilingual papyrus PERF 558 (dated 22h ) and can be reconstructed at the beginning of the bilingual contract from Nessana (67h [686f]; P.Ness.
In (6), an indefinite adjective occurs in an NP whose definiteness is signaled by the demonstrative pronoun
taj, while in (7) the numeral/article jedan 'a; one' indicates the indefiniteness of the NP (see Section 2.3.
His opinion is that then already the 3P verbal inflection indicated a definite object and apparently originated from a personal or demonstrative pronoun
with an accusative meaning ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1985 : 247).
The other was the short demonstrative pronoun
da/di, which is almost nonexistent in Syria, neither has it been attested in earlier dialectal material from the area (see Jerome Lentin, Recherches sur l'histoire de la langue arabe au Proche-Orient a l'epoque moderne, 2 vols.
Efficiency rules include using simple words and expressions, omitting superfluous words, using the active voice and avoiding double negatives, while effectiveness rules include beginning by stating the object of the exercise and avoiding using a demonstrative pronoun
as a noun.
(6) There is also no independent set of demonstrative adverbs ('here', 'there') corresponding to the pronouns; rather, a demonstrative pronoun
with a locative postposition is used ('there' = 'at that (one)'; cf.
because'; thaes, being pleonastic, need not be translated: 'Their descendants have afterwards been grievously punished because they ate that food against the Eternal One's command.' (2) The verb of the principal clause, onguldon, has a noun clause as its object; the noun clause is anticipated by a demonstrative pronoun
, thaes (the genitive of paet(9)), to which it is in apposition: 'Their descendants have afterwards been grievously punished for this, (namely) that they ate that food against the Eternal One's command.'
As is the case with the overwhelming majority of the languages in the world, and certainly with all the Germanic and Romance languages, the English definite article derives diachronically from a demonstrative pronoun
. As a fully grammaticalized marker of definiteness to indicate the identifiability of the noun phrase it modifies, it is neutral with regard to deixis, person, number, gender, or any other grammatical features.