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7) But Martha Nussbaum challenges the very idea that virtue ethics is a distinct third category since both deontologists and teleologists argue the importance of the virtues, Kant himself writing an entire treatise on the subject, The Doctrine of Virtue, Part II of The Metaphysics of Morals (1797), that has only recently been given fuller attention.
However, a deontologist may also strongly consider natural consequences of actions.
for constructions that maximize economic efficiency; deontologists argue
One can divide moral philosophers into two categories: consequentialists and deontologists.
In other words, human beings have the amazing ability to be deontologists and consequentialists at the same time.
Indeed, for modern moral theorists, moral values can be compared on a common scale, duty for deontologists and utility for utilitarians.
And most deontologists would insist that a payment of money, without more, does not rectify the harm caused by breaching the promisee's entitlement to performance.
The split between consequentialists, often utilitarians like John Stuart Mill, and deontologists like Kant is the most significant split in modern ethical theory.
The ten commandments are seen to be an early code of conduct for deontologists and the important aspect of this theory is not the consequences of acts but the moral obligations that cause a person to do such acts (Hendrick 2000).
7) Because this article seeks to further the dialogue bridging theoretical ideas about duty and judicial interpretations, it shall not, except in passing, be concerned with another highly theorized point of view, that of deontologists such as Ernest Weinrib who, as Professor Calnan nicely puts it, "argue that duty is an immutable moral obligation grounded in Kantian and Hegelian notions of abstract right.
That is, proponents of different views, be they utilitarians, deontologists, virtue theorists, or others, would equally endorse this option.