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The fact that some birds (e.g., ruddy turnstones, Arenaria interpres) are not attacked even though they may depredate nests (Hatch, 2002) suggests that such events are uncommon, or that the terns' discrimination between threats and non-threats is imperfect.
Many legumes produce large seeds, which may disperse poorly (Osman and Cocks 1992), or herbivores may heavily depredate reproductive parts, which may reduce seed supply (Gadgil et al.
Do armadillos frequently depredate nests at sites where potential prey occur at low densities?
It is likely that additional species of snakes also depredate nests opportunistically (Weatherhead and Blouin-Demers, 2004).
Stu was using his trained dogs to find seal lairs that bears did not depredate to compare with seal lairs that were opened by bears.
The inconsistent effects of concealment of nests may be related to ecology of predators; medium-sized predators (e.g., striped skunk Mephitis mephitis, Chihuahuan raven) may be less likely to find a well-concealed nest, but small predators (e.g., hispid cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus; spotted ground squirrel Spermophilus spilosoma) may be more likely to depredate a well-concealed nest if the concealment offers protection from secondary predators (Dion et al., 2000; Rivers et al., 2003).
The population dynamics of gulls are of interest because some gull species depredate the nests of other birds.
There is a wide variety of predators that depredate black-capped vireo nests, including rat snakes (Elaphe spp.), fire ants (Solenopsis invicta), greater road-runner (Geococcyx californianus), gray fox (Urocyon Cineroargenteus), and brown-headed cowbirds (Stake and Cimprich, 2003; Conkling, 2010).
Because ants disperse seeds, aerate and turn soil, facilitate nutrient cycling and depredate other insects (Holldobler and Wilson, 1990), burning impacts on ants may have indirect effects on many other ecosystem processes.
Peromyscus depredates seabird eggs (Blight and others 1999), including the Ancient Murrelet's (Drever and others 2000), although eggs of the latter species are vulnerable only when cracked or pipped to facilitate penetration of the shells of intact eggs.
Instead of viewing the collection as a capital good that wears out or depredates, we can instead treat it as something that survives indefinitely, sustained by "replacement investment" whose cost measures the annual flow of services it provides.