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2) Unfortunately, the relationship between employment, job placement or assistance interventions and crime desistence is more compli cated than it appears.
Another approach to measuring deterrent effect is to address directly the impact of known enforcement activity on future potential offending by identifying the level of subsequent desistence resulting from such knowledge.
This kind of desistence or abandonment rate research is a promising approach, but the sample of respondents and their provenance in all important results so far suggest that in this context the targets of deterrent strategy comprise a spectrum of actors, ranging from those with a low awareness of competition law and policy, through to the more mildly inclined toward anticompetitive behavior, and then the determined recidivist actors.
Although there is preliminary evidence from investigations with adolescents to suggest that these protective factors are related to desistence in general criminal recidivism (Rennie & Dolan, 2010) and violent recidivism (Lodewijks, Ruiter, & Doreleijers, 2010), the SAVRY protective factors are not related to desistence of adolescent sexual recidivism (Schmidt, Campbell, & Houlding, 2011; Spice, Viljoen, Latzman, Scalora, & Ullman, 2012).
Emphasis on desistence from criminal lifestyle and conduct.
Among the questions he addresses are whether the theory can explain desistence in contemporary, highly active, drug-involved offenders; whether it works across Black and White populations and across differing levels of criminal propensity; and whether it can be extended to include drug treatment as a potential turning point in the life course.
5) Laub and Sampson note that, "[t]he limited literature focusing directly on desistence from crimes indicates that there are multiple pathways, including attachment to a conventional person such as a spouse, stable employment, transformation of personal identity, and the aging process," (6) which contribute to desistance.
To the non-sociologist criminal defense lawyer, the conclusions Laub and Sampson reach regarding the factors that lead to desistence from crime are consistent with my accumulated anecdotal experience.
On the latter, The Doncaster Desistance Study (Wilkinson, 2009) particularly has highlighted this complex journey and process of reframing the concept of the self as one not engaging in criminal activity which is highlighted in the broader desistence literature (for example, Maruna, 2001).
2009) The Doncaster Desistence Study, Occasional Paper Series, Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University.