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It also informs our understanding of the role of peers in the trend toward desistence in early adulthood.
Social Context and Desistence from Criminal Activity.
As noted, Laws and Ward (2011; Ward & Laws, 2010) have recently added the consideration of desistence to their model.
Another approach to measuring deterrent effect is to address directly the impact of known enforcement activity on future potential offending by identifying the level of subsequent desistence resulting from such knowledge.
Although there is preliminary evidence from investigations with adolescents to suggest that these protective factors are related to desistence in general criminal recidivism (Rennie & Dolan, 2010) and violent recidivism (Lodewijks, Ruiter, & Doreleijers, 2010), the SAVRY protective factors are not related to desistence of adolescent sexual recidivism (Schmidt, Campbell, & Houlding, 2011; Spice, Viljoen, Latzman, Scalora, & Ullman, 2012).
There is a body of research that links employment to crime desistence. (2) Unfortunately, the relationship between employment, job placement or assistance interventions and crime desistence is more compli cated than it appears.
(1999) 'Desistence from offending: Experiences of Probation', Howard Journal, 38, 366-83
The focus is on identifying a purpose for the supervision plan that is specific to the goals and emphasizes desistence;
Among the questions he addresses are whether the theory can explain desistence in contemporary, highly active, drug-involved offenders; whether it works across Black and White populations and across differing levels of criminal propensity; and whether it can be extended to include drug treatment as a potential turning point in the life course.
Delinquent Boys to Age 70, John Laub and Robert Sampson attempt to answer the question, "why some offenders stop committing crimes when they do, while others continue over large proportions of the life course." (5) Laub and Sampson note that, "[t]he limited literature focusing directly on desistence from crimes indicates that there are multiple pathways, including attachment to a conventional person such as a spouse, stable employment, transformation of personal identity, and the aging process," (6) which contribute to desistance.
For example, criminological theories like 'law and order' for an explanation of policy, 'desistence theory' in terms of objectives for the sector and resettlement as more than just a practice.
On the latter, The Doncaster Desistance Study (Wilkinson, 2009) particularly has highlighted this complex journey and process of reframing the concept of the self as one not engaging in criminal activity which is highlighted in the broader desistence literature (for example, Maruna, 2001).