is a colorless, odorless, highly flammable gas; hydrogen isotope.
isotope content in water samples are expressed as [delta] values ([[delta].sup.2]H), which are permil deviations from an internationally accepted standard.
Hydrogen, which is attracted to iron, was delivered to the core by the metal, while much of the heavier isotope, deuterium
, remained in the magma which eventually cooled and became the mantle, according to the study's authors.
Physicochemical Analysis of Water with Different Deuterium
The use of hydrogen is popular as it is relatively inexpensive compared to deuterium
. Hydrogen has both a larger scattering cross-section and a higher capture cross-section than deuterium
which places an upper limit to the volume of [H.sub.2] installed lest too many neutrons be lost.
However, under certain conditions -- cold temperatures along with radiation that knocks electrons off hydrogen -- chemical reactions create water molecules with a much higher fraction of deuterium
where a is fine structure constant, [R.sub.H] and [R.sub.D] are Rydberg constants for hydrogen and deuterium
, respectively, n - the main quantum number .
The ALMA observations detected copious amounts of deuterium
, suggesting that the cloud is cold and starless.
lamps exhibit a maximum fluctuation value of 0.05% peak-to-peak (short-term stability) and maximum drift value of A [+ or -]0.3%/h (long-term stability).
The first theoretical enigma I faced was the necessity of overcoming the Coulomb barrier between two deuterons (deuterium
nucleus, which contains a neutron in addition to the usual single proton, is heavier than the hydrogen nucleus.
Chemical symbols of the isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium
(D) and tritium (T)) have been included in this analysis too.