Hypothesis 1: Quantitative job insecurity will be negatively related to employees' organizational deviance
Furthermore, to the extent that individuals high in LGO see their supervisors as providing desired challenge and valuable feedback (i.e., another important job characteristic, Hackman and Oldham, 1975), one would expect a negative correlation between LGO and supervisor-targeted deviance
. For example, a supervisor might provide praise for high performance, interesting job assignments, or other professional development opportunities.
Past studies have indicated that high levels of negative affectivity correlates with employee deviance
(Alias et al., 2012, 2013; Samnani, Salamon, and Singh, 2013; Aquino, Lewis, and Bradfield, 1999).
The research also reveals that permissive attitude is another mechanism that either promotes or deters both academic dishonesty and general deviance
. In a study of high school and college students, Jensen, Arnett, Feldman, and Cauffman (2002) found a significant, positive correlation between tolerance of deviant behavior and tolerance of academic dishonesty.
For each of these measures, we created deviance
variables indicating respondents' individual deviation from the community-level value (Table 1).
The scope of the concept of "deviance
" is broader and includes as a particular form the concept of "delinquency".
There is a possibility that there might be a close link between workplace hours and deviance
Social identity theory can help us in the analysis of deviance
(Hogg & Terry, 2000) as individuals identify with social groups on the basis of emotions and values (Tajfel, 1972).
First, the scale should be as simple and short as possible, so that it could be easily understood and quickly answered, given that young people involved in deviance
frequently have poor reading skills,.
These authors apply three different approaches to understanding the causes of workplace deviance
: anomie theory, differential association-social learning theory, and social control theory.
Using positive deviance
techniques to improve smoking cessation outcomes in New South Wales prison settings.
The theoretical framework used in this study is an integration of Lemert's (1967) deviance
typology and symbolic interaction theory as discussed in Bernard (2009).