Thus, although on average neither class reached a 5 to 1 ratio, each class significantly increased the ratio of approvals to disapprovals. What effect does this have?
Other than the ratios of approvals to disapprovals, the data collected were anecdotal narratives making graphic, quantitative, or other objective analyses problematic.
During the formal panel meeting, and only in the presence of an assigned NIDRR panel manager, the applications are discussed for scientific-technical merit and ranked for approval or disapproval. Discussion takes place after a certification is completed by each reviewer that no actual or potential conflict-of-interest exists with any applicant organization.
When identifying the one singular deficiency per application that was most responsible for disapproval, poor conceptualization of problem/approach led with 10, followed by a tie for second place between inadequate control of variables and research design errors.
(49) In its disapproval orders, the SEC has applied a regulatory framework derived from the Investment Company Act of 1940 ("the Investment Company Act") and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ("the 1934 Act").
The SEC's First Disapproval of a Bitcoin ETP: The Winklevoss Order
In a replication of this study, Polirstok and Greer (1986) found significant increases in the number of social approvals and decreases in the number of disapprovals emitted for four 9th grade low achieving students when tokens were implemented with peer tutoring.
These three participants were chosen because they had emitted high rates of disapprovals and/or low rates of approvals during baseline.
Despite the standard economic theory's dismissive prediction regarding the effects of social approval and disapproval (with the exception of a few studies cited below), we experimentally investigate whether they are capable of alleviating the free-rider incentive in a group environment that is substantially prone to opportunistic individual behavior.
A member whose effort is not up to the par may face disapproval from other members.
If the person disapproving the draft standard agrees with the working group's reasoning for not changing, one of two things can happen: the person can change their vote to approve; or the standard (assuming it still passed the committee vote) can move forward with the disapproval and voter's agreement to move forward noted.
If the person is not satisfied with the working group's reasoning, but the standard still has enough approval votes to pass, the rest of the development committee is notified of the disapproval vote, shown the comments and reasons for not changing the document, and given 15 days to reaffirm or change their vote.