Ironically, similar to other indigenous peoples, the first Bedouin land dispossession was facilitated by the international community.
In addition to the above land dispossession and the general land dispossession policies the State practiced against the entire Arab population, the Bedouin were subject to additional specific land dispossession policies that were performed using administrative, legislative, and judicial means to dispossess Bedouin land.
The judiciary was utilized not only to support the State's policy of Bedouin land dispossession but also to legitimized Bedouin land expropriation and prevented any attempts to challenge the State acts of dispossession.
At the beginning, during the early 1970s, only a few cases were adjudicated in courts, but recently, after the Negev Plan (2003), the judicial method has become the main tool for Bedouin land dispossession.
88) These rules, often, support the State's goal of Bedouin land dispossession.
89) The denial of Bedouin customary law and their indigenous culture is another method of land dispossession.
47) If land inequality caused the conflict that resulted in dispossession of the land, the failure to transform the unequal land distribution undermines assurances of non-recurrence of displacement and dispossession.
First, we will describe how land dispossession arose and is structured, as well as the institutional and contextual challenges to land restitution in Colombia.
This mass dispossession of land has occurred in a country where agrarian reform has repeatedly failed, leaving land ownership highly concentrated.
The continuing conflict and its enabling conditions create problems both for the immediate security of those trying to obtain land restitution and for those attempting to provide credible assurances that displacement and dispossession will not recur.
In general, the actions in this period attempted to protect IDPs as well as prevent forcible displacement and dispossession, but a lack of institutional coordination limited their effectiveness.
124) They identify the people at risk of property dispossession and employ similar measures to prevent illegal property title transfers.