Record unemployment, particularly among India's youth, is both a clear indicator of this adverse economic situation as well as the cognitive dissonance
that the Indian public must bear.
It is, thus, difficult for public sector employees in China to show their feelings directly, so they experience an increasing amount of emotional dissonance
In the corporate world, cognitive dissonance
can be prevalent in workers who tow the company line despite being against it.
The cognitive dissonance
theory was used to promote a variety of behaviors including reduction in electricity consumption (Kantola, Syme, & Campbell, 1984), water conservation during shower (Dickerson et al., 1992), environmentally responsible behaviors (Thogersen, 2004), and environmental attitudes and behaviors (Martinsson & Lundqvist, 2010).
Optimal arousal theory (Ellis, 1973) suggests individuals may crave dissonance
for its excitement.
Cheap sentiment is related to cognitive dissonance
, a concept originally from psychology, but used in other disciplines as well, including, notably for purposes of this essay, economics.
Constructivism and Cognitive Dissonance
in Teacher Education
The study is based on cognitive dissonance
theory and students' evaluation of teachers and courses.
This research has examined teacher beliefs (Fang, 1996; Pajares, 1992), culturally proficient teacher beliefs and practices (Aronson & Laughter, 2015; Lopez, 2016), deficit beliefs in teachers and school leaders (Guerra & Nelson, 2009; Nelson & Guerra, 2014; Valencia, 2010), and awareness of cognitive dissonance
as a mechanism for reducing resistance to diversity (McFalls & Cobb-Roberts, 2001).
The conclusion that can be drawn from this simple comparison is that, in ensemble singing or instrument playing, close harmony or dissonance
is perceived to contain more roughness and more pitch uncertainty at low pitches than at high pitches.
Several authors have stated that this effect is based on a process of reducing cognitive dissonance
(e.g., Spangenberg et al., 2003, 2012).
Keywords: Cognitive dissonance
, online world of mouth (eWOM), online negative world of mouth (eNWOM), culture differences, involvement