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More precisely, by analyzing sixty-four cartels condemned by the European Union over the period 1975-2009, we compare the sanction actually imposed to the illicit gain captured by the firms and estimate a range of restitution fines (amounting to the illegal profit, which corresponds to optimal fines given a 100% probability of detection) and dissuasive fines (which correspond to an optimal fine given that some cartels remain undetected).
For instance, some dissuasive measures have been taken to prevent domestic violence.
These must be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.
REACH requires the enforcement activities to be "effective, proportionate and dissuasive.
stocky, athletic, imposing, with a very dissuasive aspect".
Findings concluded that the new-entrant rule has had only a limited effect on competition, that the introduction of dissuasive sanctions or equivalent measures to prevent slot abuse has fostered better use of existing capacity and that the possibility of introducing local rules to improve slot allocation has limited potential.
MEPs went further, agreeing that such national criminal offences should also be punished by tough and dissuasive penalties.
But another goal of the decision is to provide hacking penalties "which are effective, proportionate and dissuasive.
In fact, the dissuasive influence or proactive, preventative measures contemplated under the Charter are perhaps its most important contribution.
In 1816, the year of Peter's execution, a Philadelphia printer issued "A Calm Dissuasive against Intemperance," a statement of the Fairfield West Consociation of Congregational Churches in Connecticut that expressed alarm at 'how very often strong drink drowns conjugal, parental, filial, and fraternal affection.
The infringement, which is the first cross-border cartel case I have handled, is a very serious breach of the principles of competition and calls for a really dissuasive penalty.
The Moav would also serve as a dissuasive weapon since the enemy would know that its missiles could be destroyed over its own territory, potentially causing widespread damage if they are armed with non-conventional warheads.