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As for local and distortional buckling strength, the AISI equations for the design of cold-formed steel beams, using the direct strength method, have been used (North American Specification 2004).
Since distortional elastic effects depend on the texture length scale, an additional variable representing defect density, l, is introduced in this expression.
And in many cases, the distortional effects of taxation--and the consequently low demand--induce many service providers to pass up the market for mobile service altogether.
In that sense, a need for strictly positive distortional taxes never arises.
Up to now, torpedoes had to be equipped with a flat sonar dome to reduce the distortional interference between the flat sensor and the surface of the dome.
In addition to dispersion, the distortional effects of the Lorentz factor on high profiles should also be incorporated when analysing profile shapes at very high angles [39,40,41].
Again we confront the distortional problem of the Great Man.
1) The Group considers its results in EURO to be a more accurate measure of its financial performance, due to the distortional effect of currency translations.
Based on all the facts of record, the Board concludes that the considerations discussed above, including the proposed divestitures, the number and strength of competitors in the market, the strong presence of bank-like credit unions, the distortional effects of out-of-market deposits, the attractiveness of the market for entry by out-of-market competitors, and other factors mitigate the potentially adverse competitive effects in the Salt Lake City banking market.
That's why it is at least arguable that much of the Web's almost inexplicably rapid growth derives from its favorable political treatment These policy decisions have had a profoundly distortional economic impact, reshaping whole industries and redirecting investment capital from brick-and-mortar businesses to online businesses.
In this manner, FRP rail systems can exhibit a high degree of material "toughness," that is, large amounts of distortional energy can be absorbed without catastrophic or complete failure.